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What are the minimal requirements for successful gamification?

What are the minimal requirements for successful gamification?

I am very interested in the concept of Gamification, the idea (used here on This Site) that by making mundane tasks into a game, you can elicit desired behavior from users of software. (For example, by giving people arbitrary reputation points, you encourage them to help the best answers rise to the top… )

Wikipedia says that some of the techniques used for gamification include:

  • achievement "badges"
  • achievement levels
  • "leader boards"
  • a progress bar or other visual meter to indicate how close people are to completing a task a company is trying to encourage, such as completing a social networking profile or earning a frequent shopper loyalty award.[7]
  • virtual currency
  • systems for awarding, redeeming, trading, gifting, and otherwise exchanging points
  • challenges between users embedding small casual games within other activities.[2]

I'd like to see what studies actually say about gamification. If I wanted to start a new website which used gamificiation to entice users to participate, which techniques are the most efficient? Do some techniques work better than others? Do you need multiple rewards (E.G. reputation and badges)?

What do studies show are the minimum requirements for successful gamification?


In short, I'd say the minimum requirement is to understand which behaviours you are influencing and why.

Before you consider which game techniques to use, consider the 'story' of the product/service.

Each story includes:

  • Actor/s. Who are your targets?
  • These actors are motivated by something. This is what your game should leverage.
  • There is a goal. What are you/the actor trying to achieve. Help them progress towards the goal. Motivational factors / game techniques should encourage behaviours that move towards this goal and discourage behaviours that move away from it.
  • The actor begins in a context. Understanding the context gives you clues to opportunities and constraints.
  • The actor progresses through a journey (or arc). Mapping this journey helps you know when to employ certain techniques.
  • An outcome is achieved. This is the most critical part of course.

Draw this out in a path. Include the diversions, obstacles etc. Identify the main path as well as the little loops of activity that contribute.

Tip: If this isn't clear consider well known kid's stories. They are all shaped by this familiar pattern.

The techniques you list above and ones you will see elsewhere are valid. However by considering the story you will understand when to use certain techniques and how they should be approached.


What are the minimal requirements for successful gamification? - Psychology

Jack Adams-Webber, Kathryn Belicki, John G. Benjafield, Nancy DeCourville, David DiBattista, Stefan M. Brudzynski, Jane Dywan, Carolyn Hafer, Harry T. Hunt, Dorothy Markiewicz, John Mitterer, Robert D. Ogilvie, Edward W. G. Pomeroy, Joan Preston, Linda Rose-Krasnor, Stanley W. Sadava, Sidney J. Segalowitz, Paul D. Tyson

Karen Arnell, Michael Ashton, Angela Book, Kimberly Cote, Veena D. Dwivedi, Gordon Hodson, Tanya Martini, Cheryl McCormick, Catherine J. Mondloch, Tim Murphy, Gary Pickering, Teena Willoughby

Michael Busseri, Andrew V. Dane, Stephen M. Emrich, Angela D. Evans, Dawn E. Good, Caitlin Mahy, Cameron Muir, Elizabeth Shulman

Karen Campbell, Paula Duarte-Guterman, William Hall, Scott Neufeld, Charlis Raineki, Sabrina Thai

Sherrie Bieman-Copland, Marie Good

Undergraduate Program Officer

905-688-5550, extension 5050

The Department of Psychology offers four-year programs of study leading to a BA (Honours) Psychology, a BA with Major Psychology, and a three-year BA Pass degree program. Programs are designed to provide students with a broad introduction to the field of psychology including research methodology, psychological theory and application. In addition, the 20-credit degree programs give students the opportunity to prepare for admission to professional and advanced degree training in a variety of fields. Students interested in pursuing graduate study specifically in psychology should complete the Honours program.

Students wishing to major in Psychology must apply to declare their major. Declare or Change Major forms are available in the Registrar's Office and online at brocku.ca/registrar/forms. The Department believes that a broadly-based liberal arts and science background is appropriate in conjunction with a major in Psychology. It is required that Honours students acquire some background in other disciplines as part of their undergraduate program by taking elective courses in areas outside of Psychology. Students wishing to pursue an Honours (Research) degree must complete a PSYC 4F91 Application. Applications are available in the Department of Psychology.

Students wishing to take PSYC 3F40 and 3P39 require a minimum 77 percent major average. Students wishing to take PSYC 4F91, 4P93 and 4P95 require a minimum 80 percent major average.

The requirements for graduation with a BA (Honours) are a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent non-major average. The requirements for a BA with Major and a Pass BA are a minimum 60 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent overall average.

The Psychology Co-op program combines academic and work terms over a five-year period. Students spend two years in an academic setting studying the core concepts of psychology prior to taking the first work placement. In addition to the current fees for courses in academic study terms, Psychology Co-op students are assessed an annual administrative fee (see the Schedule of Fees).

Eligibility to continue is based on the student's major average and non-major average. A student with a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent non-major average will be permitted to continue. A student with a major average lower than 70 percent will not be permitted to continue in the Psychology Co-op program. If a student subsequently raises their major average to 70 percent, the student may be readmitted only if approved by the Co-op Admission Committee.

All students in the Co-operative Education program are required to read, sign and adhere to the terms of the Student Regulations Waiver and Co-op Student Manual (brocku.ca/co-op/current-students/co-op-student-manuals) as articulated by the Co-op Programs Office. In addition, eligibility to continue in the co-op option is based on the student's major average and non-major average, and the ability to demonstrate the motivation and potential to pursue a professional career.

Each four-month co-operative education work term must be registered. Once students are registered in a co-op work term, they are expected to fulfill their commitment. If the placement accepted is for more than one four-month work term, students are committed to complete all terms. Students may not withdraw from or terminate a work term without permission from the Director, Co-op Program Office.

The Psychology Co-op program designation will be awarded to those students who have completed a four-year degree (Honours or BA with Major) and who have successfully completed a minimum of twelve months of Co-op work experience.

The Policing and Criminal Justice program involves courses offered through Brock University and Niagara College. This four-year program combines training in policing and criminal justice with an education in a chosen academic discipline, which may be Communication Studies, Psychology, Political Science or Sociology. Upon successful completion of the program, students majoring in Communication Studies, Human Geography, Political Science and Sociology will receive an Honours BA degree from Brock and a Police Foundations diploma from Niagara College. Upon successful completion of the program, students majoring in Psychology will receive a BA with Major degree from Brock and a Police Foundations diploma from Niagara College. The program caters to the increasing demand in society for professionals who possess both solid applied skills and the substantive knowledge needed to apply them to the areas of policing and criminal justice. This would ordinarily involve attending college after gaining a university degree, but the Brock and Niagara program combines the two in a single integrated package. Applicants must have a minimum 70 percent overall average to be considered for admission to the program. Volunteering experience is considered an asset. Successful applicants must maintain a minimum 70 percent overall average during Year 2 and meet other program requirements to continue in the program. Enrolment in this program is limited. Admission to the program is not guaranteed by attainment of the minimum requirements. Application forms for the Policing and Criminal Justice program are available from the Office of the Dean of Social Sciences.

Please consult the Policing and Criminal Justice entry for a listing of program requirements.

In 20 credit Honours degree programs a maximum of eight credits may be numbered 1 (alpha) 00 to 1 (alpha) 99 at least three credits must be numbered 2 (alpha) 90 or above at least three credits must be numbered 3 (alpha) 90 or above and the remaining credits must be numbered 2 (alpha) 00 or above.

In this 20 credit BA with Major degree program a maximum of eight credits may be numbered 1 (alpha) 00 to 1 (alpha) 99 at least four and one-half credits must be numbered 2 (alpha) 90 or above at least one and one-half credits must be numbered 3 (alpha) 90 or above and the remaining credits must be numbered 2 (alpha) 00 or above.

In 15 credit degree programs a maximum of eight credits may be numbered 1 (alpha) 00 to 1 (alpha) 00 at least three credits must be numbered 2 (alpha) 90 or above and the remaining credits must be numbered 2 (alpha) 00 or above.

In some circumstances, in order to meet university degree and program requirements, more than 15 or 20 credits may be taken.

Comprehensive Course Categories

Among the total number of Psychology courses taken in year 3 and 4, students completing the Comprehensive stream program must take minimum of one-half credit from each category

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 89
one-half PSYC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

PSYC 3P30 (see program note 4)
two and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 to 3 (alpha) 99 (see program note 5)
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2( alpha )00 to 2( alpha )89
one-half PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

PSYC 3F40 and 3P39 (see program notes 2 and 4)
one and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 to 3 (alpha) 99
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 0N90, 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 89
one-half PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

PSYC 3P30 (see program note 4)
two and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 to 3 (alpha) 99 (see program note 5)
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 4P07 or 4P92
PSYC 4P08
two PSYC credit numbered 3 (alpha) 90 to 4 (alpha) 99 (see program note 5)
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 0N90, 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2( alpha )00 to 2( alpha )89
one-half PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

PSYC 3F40 and 3P39 (see program notes 2 and 4)
one and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 or above
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 4F91, 4P92, and 4P93 (see program note 2)
one PSYC credit numbered 3 (alpha) 90 to 4 (alpha) 99 (see program note 3)
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2( alpha )00 to 2( alpha )89
one-half PSYC credt numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

PSYC 3P30 (see program note 4)
two and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 to 3 (alpha) 99
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 0N90, 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2( alpha )00 to 2( alpha )89
one-half PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

PSYC 3P30 (see program note 4)
two and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 to 3 (alpha) 99
two elective credits (see program note 1)

One and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 to 4 (alpha) 99
one PSYC credit numbered 3 (alpha) 90 to 4 (alpha) 99
PSYC 4P07
two elective credits (see program note 1)

For Yukon College students attending Brock in Year Three

(taken at Brock University)

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2( alpha )00 to 2( alpha )89
one-half PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

Students may take a combined major in Psychology and a second discipline. For requirements in the other discipline, the student should consult the relevant department/centre. It should be noted that not all departments/centres provide a combined major option. All combined major students should consult with the Administrator or Co-ordinator in each department/centre in order to avoid duplication of courses.

Consult the Biological Sciences entry for a listing of program requirements.

This is a specialized Combined Honours program that has students choosing to focus on either Child and Youth Studies or on Psychology upon entry to Year Three. Consult the Child and Youth Studies entry for a listing of program requirements.

Students in other disciplines can obtain a minor in Psychology within their degree program by completing the following courses with a minimum 60 percent overall average:

Consult the Policing and Criminal Justice entry for a listing of program requirements.

The graduate programs allow for study and directed research with a concentration in behavioural neuroscience, life span development, or social/personality. For further information, including faculty interests, see the current graduate calendar or the Psychology Department website.

Note that not all courses are offered in every session. Refer to the applicable term timetable for details.

# Indicates a cross listed course

* Indicates primary offering of a cross listed course

Students must check to ensure that prerequisites are met. Students may be deregistered, at the request of the instructor, from any course for which prerequisites and/or restrictions have not been met.

Foundations of Psychology

Methodological approaches and contemporary issues in psychology and their application to everyday life.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Note: prerequisite to all courses in Psychology except PSYC 2F23 and 3Q91.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 1F25 and 1P28 .

Statistics and Research Design in the Behavioural Sciences

Principles of research design and data analysis in the context of psychological research.

Lectures, tutorial, 4 hours per week.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 or one Social Science credit.

Note: 4U Mathematics of Data Management or equivalent background recommended.

Roadmap to Careers in Psychology

Career exploration and applications in psychology and related fields.

Seminar, online activities, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single) majors. Not open to combined majors and minors.

Note: students are expected to register during their second year of study. Must be completed before registering in required year 4 courses.

Introduction to theories and research in human development across the lifespan. Topics include development in physical, perceptual, cognitive, linguistic, social and/or emotional domains.

Lectures, 1.5 hours per week online activities, 1.5 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR, RECL, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Note: may be offered on-site or online. Students may not concurrently register in CHYS 2P10.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in CHYS 2F05 and 2P10.

Mental disorders with respect to classification, diagnosis, etiology, treatment, and applied case studies. Biological and psychosocial risk factors for mental disorders.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3F20 and 3P28.

How the mind processes information. Topics include recognition, attention, memory, problem solving, judgment and decision making.

Lectures, lab, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Note: may be offered on-site or online.

Personality and Individual Differences

Introduction to theory and research in personality and related individual differences. Topics include measurement and structure of personality characteristics biological bases, genetic and environmental origins, and evolutionary function of personality personality disorders personality as a predictor of life outcomes other domains of psychological variation (religious beliefs and political attitudes, sexuality, occupational interests, mental abilities).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Fundamentals of Social Psychology

Theory, methods and research examining the influence of others on phenomena such as cognition, the self, attitudes, group processes and communication.

Lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until dates specified in Registration guide.

Introduction to Brain and Behaviour

Introduction to biological aspects of behavioural neuroscience. Basics of the structure and function of the nervous system in relation to behaviour and reviews activities of the brain from the neuron through to interrelationships among neural systems. Topics include neuronal function, drugs and behaviour, brain plasticity and recovery from injury, sensation and perception, and the organization of the brain emphasizing human behaviour.

Lectures, 3 hours per week seminar, 1 hour per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Note: student may not concurrently register in PSYC (NEUR) 2P36.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC (NEUR) 2P36.

Introduction to behavioural neuroscience and biological aspects of behaviour. Basics of the structure and function of the nervous system in relation to behaviour and activities of the brain from the neuron through to interrelationships among neural systems (central and peripheral nervous system, and hormonal regulation). Topics include neuronal function, drugs and behaviour, brain plasticity and recovery from injury, sensation and perception, and the organization of the brain emphasizing human behaviour.

Lectures, 3 hours per week lab, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Note: materials fee required. Students may not concurrently register in PSYC 2P35.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 2P35.

Physiological basis of neural mechanisms relevant to human actions and cognitions such as motivation (sleep, sexual behaviour, eating), emotions and stress, learning and memory, communication and language, and thought (psychological/psychiatric disorders).

Lectures, 3 hours per week lab, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Introduction to human perception emphasizing visual and auditory perception, including theory and applications to neurophysiology, speech recognition and development. Integration of smell, taste, balance and time perception to demonstrate the biological and cognitive bases of perception.

Lectures, 2.5 hours per week, seminar, 1 hour, alternating weeks.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Introduction to Community Psychology

Overview of history, approaches and ethical issues with psychological research and practice in community settings including deinstitutionalization, research with vulnerable communities, Indigenous research, structural interventions, and community empowerment.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3P52 .

Introduction to psychological aspects of health and illness. How behaviour, social context and attitudes influence physiological processes and our health. Topics include health promotion, stress,psychoneuroimmunology, health and physical activity, pain and the health care system.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, PHTH majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, PHTH majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3P51 .

Interaction between psychology and behaviour in sport. Understanding individual and team optimal performance and athlete development.

lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to BKin, BPhEd, BPhEd (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior), BPhEd (Honours)/BEd (Junior/Intermediate) and BSc (Kin) majors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to BKin, BPhEd, BPhEd (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior), BPhEd (Honours)/BEd (Junior/Intermediate) BSc (Kin) majors and PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration Guide. Students must have a minimum of 3.5 overall credits.

Facilitating Communication and Critical Thinking in Groups

Examination of theories and concepts related to the successful facilitation of groups. Topics may include the promotion of critical thinking and effective communication, group-based learning, intergroup dynamics and conflict resolution.

Lectures, seminar, 5 hours per week group-based facilitation, 4 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum of 8.0 overall credits, 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90 and permission of the instructor.

Research methods emphasizing correlational and experimental designs and associated analyses (regression and ANOVA). Development of the student's capacity to evaluate scientific literature, generate testable hypotheses, gather and analyze data and report results in a manuscript.

Lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors with a minimum 77 percent major average and a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: Neuroscience majors with a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum of 8.0 overall credits may register. Contact the Department.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3P30.

Visual Perception From Eye to Brain

Historical and contemporary issues in the cognitive neuroscience of visual perception. Different approaches to perception, emphasizing neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Topics may include face and object perception, emotion, short and long-term memory, and neural correlates of consciousness.

Lectures, lab, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors, GHUM , SOSC students and minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience

Neural basis of human cognition, emphasizing contemporary methods in cognitive neuroscience. Methodology (e.g. neuroimaging), perception, memory, language, emotion, executive functions and social cognition.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 1.0 PSYC credit above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 PSYC 2P35 or PSYC 2P36 one of PSYC 2P20, 2P49 or permission of the instructor.

Theories of Development and Socialization

Interdisciplinary exploration of child and youth development and socialization, including the foundational literature in psychology, sociology and anthropology, as well as contemporary and critical interpretive theories of childhood and youth.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior) majors and CHYS minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior) majors, GHUM , SOSC students and CHYS minors. Students must have a minimum of 7.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90 or permission of the Department.

Theories and research pertaining to development during adolescence. Topics include biological, cognitive and socioemotional development, and the various contexts (family, peers, schools, culture) in which development occurs.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, PHTH majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, PHTH majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90. Not open to CHYS (single or combined) majors.

Theories and methods of lifespan development as applied to the special issues that emerge during late adulthood how physiological, social and cognitive factors interact as individuals cope with the tasks of later years.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior), HEAR , NEUR, PHTH , SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior), HEAR , NEUR, PHTH , SPLS majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Current theories and research on human memory from cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Encoding, storing, and retrieving memories in different time scales and/or systems of memory (e.g., short-term memory, working memory, long-term memory, prospective memory).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: may be offered on-site or online

Persuasion and Propaganda

Psychology of social influence, with particular emphasis on persuasion and propaganda.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: may be offered on-site or online.

Theory and research on how we make sense of ourselves and our social world. Topics include goals, mood, memory, hypothesistesting, counterfactual thinking, stereotypes and culture.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. After thatdate open to PSYC (single and combined) majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Determinants, varieties and consequences of parenting, focusing on psychological research findings in contemporary parenting/parenthood issues. Topics include different styles of parenting, parent-child relationships, child maltreatment, parenting children with different temperaments, and parenting in ecological contexts.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), CHHS , CHLH , CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Classic Theories of Personality

Introduction to personality psychology using a heorist by theorist approach. Classic theories of personality, including, psychoanalytic, humanistic and social learning approaches.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single of combined) majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Adolescent development from a psychobiological perspective. Topics include occurrence and consequence of early puberty, the influence of hormones and social factors on adolescent development, and adolescent engagement in risky behaviour.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: may be offered on-site or online

Introduction to Abnormal Psychology

Selected mental disorders with respect to classification, diagnosis, etiology and treatment. Biological, psychological and social determinants of psychopathology.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to RECL majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits. Not open to PSYC (single or combined) majors.

Note: may be offered on-site or online.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 2P15 and 3F20 .

Critical Thinking in Psychology

Development of scientific thinking and discovery procedures in psychology. The design of experiments and quasi-experiments. Control of variables, statistical power and alternative sources of data. Critical analysis of typical examples of contemporary psychological research.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors with either a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3F40.

Applied Social Psychology

Theory and research of social psychology as applied to specific areas of practical and social concern, such as physical and mental health, the justice system, the workplace, education, and the environment. Planning and evaluating social psychological interventions.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single and combined) majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

The Development of Deception

Development of non-verbal and verbal deceptive behaviours from the preschool years into adolescence. Influence of cognitive development on deceptive behaviours as well as social factors that influence lie-telling and deceptive behaviours. Legal and social implications of deception.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Intergroup Behaviour

Social psychological theories and research in the area of intergroup relations and intergroup conflict. Topics include realistic conflict theory, social identity theory, social exchange, relative deprivation and research on intergroup perceptions and attitudes. Current issues/controversies and implications for the resolution of intergroup conflict.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), BCMN , COMM, MCMN majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Human Sexuality

Introduction to the psychological study of human sexuality. Biopsychosocial approaches are applied to different issues in human sexuality. Topics may include sexual differentiation, gender identity and sexual orientation, attraction and love, paraphilias, and sexual physiology.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in HLSC 2P50.

Conflict, Contradictions and Development

Conflict in early human development including the understanding of the causes, management and outcomes of conflicts. Cognitive and social strategies used to resolve conflicts.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd majors and CHYS minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd majors, GHUM , SOSC students and CHYS minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 7.0 overall credits.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 2P12, CHYS 2P10 or permission of the instructor.

Human Evolutionary Psychology

Human psychological characteristics in terms of function and evolution. General principles of evolutionary psychology, individual differences, group differences, adaptations to the natural environment, kin relationships, co-operation and conflict, sexuality and mating, and social organization. Critical evaluation of evidence that a given psychological characteristic may be an adaptation.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in the registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 one of PSYC 2P25, 2P30, 3P24 ( 2P24 ) or permission of the instructor.

Scientific examination of human and nonhuman motivation and emotion from evolutionary, physiological, developmental and social perspectives. Topics include hunger, thirst, reproduction, sleep, aggression, stress, arousal, love, drug addiction, curiosity and creativity.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3V88 .

Applications of computers to management and analysis of data, including data entry, statistical procedures and interpretation of output, using SPSS .

Lectures/lab, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors with a minimum 77 percent major average, a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: Neuroscience majors with a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum of 8.0 overall credits may register. Contact the Department.

Psychological theories of perception, cognition, narrative, and emotion through the lens of contemporary and classic films.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: may be offered on-site or online

Introduction to comparative psychology, emphasizing the similarity and differences of behaviour patterns across several species (including humans).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Food and Eating

Psychological, biological and social factors influencing food/beverage consumption in humans, including theoretical and applied aspects. Topics include physiological control of food intake biological, orosensory, social and cultural factors influencing food selection the effects of food on behaviour eating disorders and obesity and weight control.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), OEVI, NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, OEVI majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Topics, readings and/or research chosen in consultation with a faculty member who is willing to supervise the student.

Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90 and permission of the Department.

Empirical Directed Studies

Empirical research project chosen in consultation with a faculty member who is willing to supervise the student.

Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90 and permission of the Department.

Survey of the means by which humans learn, and the role of attention, perception, cognition and memory in learning. Individual, social and cultural factors that influence the acquisition of knowledge and development of skills in a variety of fields including art, science, sports and music. Strategies to promote durable learning and the challenge of transferring learning across contexts.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in Registration guide.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 2P45 .

Overview of the field of forensic psychology including psychopathy, risk assessment, criminal profiling, deception, eyewitness identification and jury decision-making.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined) majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Introduction to Human Neuropsychology

Brain function and behaviour through basic research on neuropsychological and neurocognitive function through clinical syndromes and cases. Topics include neural basis of perception, memory, language, motor control, emotion and executive functions. Recovery and advances in assessment, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of such functional deficits.

Lectures, seminar, 4 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 1.0 PSYC credit above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 PSYC 2P35, 2P36 or permission of the instructor.

Theory and research pertaining to cognitive development. Topics include the development of perception, language, memory, problem solving, reading and social cognition.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR, SPLS majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: students may not concurrently register in CHYS 3P65.

Completion of this course will replace previously assigned grade and credit in CHYS 3P65.

Child Language Acquisition: Early Stages

Theories, research and methods in early language development. Linguistic stages in the development of child language at the level of grammar and meaning (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), APLI (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior), HEAR , NEUR, SPLS (single or combined), SLHS (single or combined) majors, PSYC, APLI, CHYS minors, HESC , SLSC , CSHS and TESC Certificate students until date specified in Registration guide.

Note: LING 1P94 may be taken concurrently. LING 1P94 and 1P95( 1F94 ) recommended.

Introduction to Qualitative Research in Psychology

Qualitative research underpinnings (e.g. philosophical foundations and ethical issues), methodologies (e.g. interviews, focus groups, community-based research), and key analytical approaches (e.g. thematic analysis).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

How the human mind/brain processes, responds to and produces music. Topics include perception, memory, emotions, performance, and the developmental and social psychology of music.

Lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: permission of the instructor.

Neural basis of human language, emphasizing contemporary methods in cognitive neuroscience. Topics include methodology (e.g., behavioural and neuroimaging), biological and developmental bases of language, foundations of language, and word and sentence comprehension.

Lectures/lab, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 1.0 PSYC credit above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49 or permission of instructor.

Bases of Neuropsychopharmacology

Mechanisms of drug action and classification of psychoactive agents. Elements of pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination) and a review of the major groups of psychoactive agents including hypnotics, analgesics, anxiolytics, antidepressants, psychostimulants and neuroleptics, emphasizing mechanisms and consequences of drug action on selected neurotransmitter systems (dopaminergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic, serotonergic).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Functions, mechanisms, rhythms, physiology and psychology of sleep contrasted with counterparts during wakefulness. Current issues in sleep research and sleep disorders medicine.

Lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Basic principles of the kinetics of drugs and drug action, drug effects and drug interactions. Psychology of addictive behaviour. Effects of psychoactive drugs on behaviour and experience. Focus on recreational drugs and psychiatric medications.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, PHTH majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Children and Youth in the Digital Age

Theoretical, political, practical, legal and developmental perspectives on the use and impact of digital media and current technologies. Topics may include social networking, cyber-bullying, communication patterns, gamification and media literacy.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior) majors and CHYS minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior) majors, GHUM , SOSC students and CHYS minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 7.0 overall credits or permission of the Department.

Note: may be offered on-site, online or blended.

Modern theories and misconceptions about the effects of stress on psychology and health. Diverse material ranges from workplace theories of stress to the effect of stress on our immune system. Coping strategies, methods of stress appraisal and behavioural effects are also studied and physiological systems involved with the mammalian stress response.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Social competence, aggression, friendship and other topics in social development from a variety of developmental perspectives. Methodological and intervention issues relevant to the study of social development.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: students may not concurrently register in CHYS 3P24. May be offered on-site or online.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in CHYS 3P24 and 3P77 .

Political Psychology and Ideology

Topics include person versus situation factors, ideological thinking, political values, political polarization, politicization of science, voting behaviour, and media influences.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Social Psychology of Technology

Social psychological implications of artificial intelligence, social media, human-robot interactions, and spread of misinformation online, benefits of technology for conducting research, and interpersonal consequences of technology-based communication and interactions.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Interpersonal Behaviour

Social psychology of interpersonal attraction and relationships, as studied through experimental, correlational and longitudinal designs. Reinforcement, exchange, attributional, equity and balance models. Levels of relationships. Aspects of the maintenance and dissolution of relationships and of interpersonal psychopathology.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), BCMN , COMM, MCMN majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Emotional, physiological and social components of psychological trauma including diagnostic concerns and treatments.

Lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Integrative approach to basic neuroscience, focusing on behavioural analysis in animal models, insights into brain and behaviour relationships provided by the traditional and the latest techniques (e.g., stereotaxic surgery, DREADDs, viral vectors and optogenetics transgenic organisms).

Lectures, 2 hours per week lab, 3 hrs alternating weeks.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors until the date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC (NEUR) 3F81 , 3P81 and 3P82 .

Introduction to the field of Environmental Psychology. Theoretical and applied aspects of the discipline, with an emphasis on understanding the human response to today’s most pressing environmental challenges. Topics may include history and theory of environmental psychology, psychological and social barriers to change, risk perception, change strategies for pro-environmental behaviour, sustainability education and communication, and research methods.

Lecture, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Second Language Acquisition and Learning

Theories of subsequent-language learning. Topics include psychological aspects of language learning (behaviourism, cognitivism, humanism), language and culture, contrastive analysis, error analysis, and interlanguage.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

The Psychology of Screens (Television and Beyond)

Cognitive responses to mediated communication including television and new/emerging information and communication technologies. Focus on cognitive effects, theories and research.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or permission of the instructor.

Prerequisite(s): one of PSYC 1F90, COMM 1F90, IASC 1F01, IASC 1P04 and 1P05 or permission of the instructor.

Note: completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC (COMM/PCUL) 3P95 and COMM 3Q20 .

Special Topics in Psychology

Structure and content of course varies.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Independent Empirical Research

Empirical research carried out with a faculty member who is willing to supervise the student.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors with a minimum of 13.5 overall credits and permission of the Department.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 2F23 PSYC 3F40 ( 3P41 and 3P42 ) or 3P30.

Note: this course is not a substitute for PSYC 4F91 nor can it be counted toward an Honours degree in Psychology. Students may not concurrently register in PSYC 4F91.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 4F91.

Empirical Research Thesis

Research project carried out with a faculty supervisor whose permission must be obtained prior to registration.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum 80 percent major average and permission of the Department.

Note: students may not concurrently register in PSYC 4F05.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 4F05, 4P07 and 4P08.

Psychology Students' Transition to Work

Use of the e-portfolio process to develop students' metacognitive awareness and their understanding of key concepts associated with transitions from university to the workplace.

Lectures, 1.5 hours per week online activities, 1.5 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum of 13.5 credits and 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90. Not open to combined majors and minors.

Completion of this course will replace previously assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 4F91.

Data Science for Academic and Applied Research

Introduction to data management, analysis and visualization using relevant computer software. Provides hands-on experience analyzing interesting psychological questions.

Lab, 2 hours per week online activities 1 hour per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single) majors with a 70 percent major average, a minimum of 13.5 overall credits and 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 4F91.

Advanced Directed Studies I

Topic, readings and/or research chosen in consultation with a faculty member who is willing to supervise the student.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors with a minimum of 13.5 overall credits and permission of the Department.

Empirical Advanced Directed Studies

Empirical research project chosen in consultation with a faculty member who is willing to supervise the student.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors with a minimum of 13.5 overall credits and permission of the Department.

Social psychology of interpersonal relationships, especially romantic relationships and other close relationships (e.g., friendship). Psychological processes underlying the development, maintenance, disruption or end of personal relationships. Current social psychological theories of close relationships.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combine) majors and minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.5 credits and 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Students will not receive earned credit in PSYC 4P15 if PSYC 3P80 has been successfully completed.

Psychological principles and research relevant to organizations and industry. Topics include hiring, training, work performance,leadership, and team dynamics.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combine) majors and minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. Students musthave a minimum of 13.5 credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Applied Cognitive Psychology

How basic principles of memory, attention, recognition and decision making influence our behaviour in everyday and forensic contexts. Topics may include brain training, multitasking, person perception, consumer psychology and eyewitness memory.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Advanced Seminar in Human Memory

Historic and current ideas about memory and the implication these have for our approach to memory in research, everyday function, medical and legal contexts as revealed through such topics as recollections, tip of the tongue, hypnosis and memory, eyewitness testimony and various memory disorders (psychogenic amnesia, childhood amnesia).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors with a minimum of 13.5 overall credits.

Psychological Measurement and Personality Research

Principles of psychological measurement, psychometric theory and test construction. Personality structure and the causes and functions of personality variation. Individual differences in the area of personality and associated domains, including cognitive abilities, interests, attitudes, religiosity, and sexuality.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Children's Memory Development

Memory development from infancy to childhood. Topics include working memory, autobiographical memory, false memory, memory for events, prospective memory, spatial memory, metacognition, and implicit memory.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Selected topics related to atypical child and adolescent development. Topics may include the study of intellectual disability, autism, ADHD , learning disorders, antisocial behaviours, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, substance abuse, personality disorders, and schizophrenia. Emphasis on understanding disorders at multiple levels of analysis (biological, cognitive, social) and within various ecological contexts (individual, peer, family, community, culture).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 PSYC 2P12, CHYS 2P10 or permission of the instructor.

Note: students must be available to participate in the Special Needs Activity Program ( SNAP ) at Brock University on Thursday mornings.

Examination of how we perceive and form impressions of other people, including the perception of facial displays of emotion, perception of facial identity and social judgements. Topics include the development of person perception, underlying neural mechanisms and implications for daily life.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combine) majors and minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.5 credits and 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: may be offered on-site or online.

Psychology of Children and the Law

Examination of the role of child victims/witnesses in the justice system. Topics include eyewitness memory, false confessions, deception detection, and the culpability of the child.

Lectures, Seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.5 credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Focus on positive experiences, characteristics, and institutions. Main themes include positive psychology as a source of information about well-being and optimal human functioning, central role of psychological science in the study of positive psychology, positive psychology as a lens through which to view all psychological inquiry.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in Registration guide. Students must have 13.5 credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychobiology of Human Sexuality

Advanced topics in human sexuality focusing on current research and a biopsychological perspective.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.5 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 PSYC 3P34 or HLSC 2P50 or permission of the instructor.

Development During Infancy

Human development from conception to 3 years. Topics may include brain, perceptual, cognitive, social, emotional development and animal models. The impact of early experience on later development.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and SPLS majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3P35 .

Psychology of Social Justice

Basic research and theories addressing how people think about and respond to justice and injustice as subjective concepts. Topics include the nature of people's motivation for justice, how justice is defined and the influence of justice concerns on human behaviour.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors with a minimum 13.5 overall credits.

Historical and current beliefs about the nature of human emotions. Topics may include the definition and measurement of emotions, connections between emotional experience, emotion physiology, and emotion regulation across positive and negative affect, the relationship between emotion and other domains of psychology, developmental changes in emotion across adulthood, and/or emotion-related psychopathology (depression, autism).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until the date specified in Registration guide. Students must have 13.5 credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychosocial Problems in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

Theory and research on internalizing and externalizing problem behaviours in adolescence and emerging adulthood, as well as the factors that enhance resilience and competence.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum 13.5 credits until the date specified in the Registration guide.

Neural Mechanisms, Hormones and Behaviour

Relations among the hormones of the endocrine system, the nervous system and behaviour the involvement of hormones in sexual behaviour, the mechanisms of stress and cognition relevant research methodologies.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Maturation and Development

Influences of brain maturation on psychological development and vice versa, and the implications for behaviour.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined),CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior) and NEUR majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

Early-life environmental contributions to later-life health, including maternal/fetal adverse exposures and nutrition, infection, socioeconomic status, and early-life adversity. Research exploring biological mechanisms involved in social determinants of health.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Neuroplasticity and Behaviour in Adulthood and Aging

Examination of the link between adult brain plasticity (especially neurogenesis) and animal vertebrate behaviour (i.e. learning, memory, social behaviour, stress, and anxiety).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Human-Animal Relations

Topics include cognitive rationalizations, dehumanization, the “meat paradox”, speciesism, and human-animal relations affecting climate change and zoonotic diseases, affection and bonding with animals.

Lecture, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors and NEUR majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90

Psychology of Bilingualism

Methodology (e.g., behavioural and neuroimaging), second language acquisition (in children and adults), social psychological aspects of bilingualism and cognitive consequences of bilingualism.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 credits and 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 or permission of the instructor.

Concepts related to acquisition and analysis of bioelectrical signals recorded from the brain, pupillary system, skeletomotor system, cardiovascular system, electrodermal system and respiratory system. Applications to health and human factors include arousal, attention, emotion, stress, immunology, lie detection and brain injury.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR majors and PSYC minors until the date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Professional Topics in Psychology

Topics may include privacy legislation, confidentiality, research ethics, post-degree training and professional programs, and other issues that individuals in psychology-related professions may face.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in Registration guide. Students must have 13.5 credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

Theory and research on the basic processes involved in prejudice and discrimination. Topics include stereotyping, emotions, competition, contemporary prejudice, implicit biases, individual differences, and prejudice reduction.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors who hold a minimum of 13.5 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Violent Predators

Multi-disciplinary approach in an effort to understand the psychology of criminals who engage in predatory violence, including serial killers, mass murderers, child molesters, and rapists. Theories, concepts and research from the fields of psychology, sociology, criminology and criminal justice that social scientists employ to understand and respond to violent criminals.

Lectures, online activities, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors who hold a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Introduction to the Profession of Clinical Psychology

Review of ethical issues, approaches to assessment, research on the efficacy of psychotherapy and a selective review of evidence-based approaches for treating specific disorders.

Lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single and combined) majors and minors who hold a minimum of 13.5 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Introduction to Counselling and Psychotherapy

Contemporary major theories of counselling and psychotherapy, including client/person-centered counselling, cognitive-behaviour therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and post-modern approaches.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors who hold a minimum of 13.5 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Historical development of the multiple orientations within psychology. Philosophical and scientific influences on the field of psychology and their relevance to new developments in psychology.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum 70 percent major average and permission of the Department.

Note: students not completing a thesis in the same year or students in combined programs completing a thesis in another discipline should contact the Department.

Discussion of Undergraduate thesis research and preparation, including examination of various topics in Psychology.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum 80 percent major average and permission of the Department.

Scientific literature relevant to the topic of the empirical thesis.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum 80 percent major average and permission of the Department.

Special Topics in Psychology

Structure and content of course varies.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.5 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

First co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Second co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Third co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Optional co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Optional co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Co-op Professional Preparation

Provides students with the tools, resources and skills to maximize co-op employment and professional development opportunities.

Lectures, presentation, site visits, 1.5 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Co-op Reflective Learning and Integration I

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

Co-op Reflective and Integration II

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

Co-op Reflective Learning and Integration III

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

Co-op Reflective Learning and Integration IV

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

Co-op Reflective Learning and Integration V

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academics studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.


Technology and Recruitment/Selection

Recruitment and selection have probably benefited the most from the advent of technological solutions during the last few decades. The first studies exploring the role of e-hr appeared early in the 2000s (Karakanian, Reference Karakanian 2000 Stanton & Coovert, Reference Stanton and Coovert 2004) predicting the beneficial impact of technology, across the different HR functions. Back then, the focus was οn topics such as the use of the intranet, e-learning, virtual teams, HR Information Systems, etc. Nevertheless, internet recruitment, employment / career websites and on-line psychological testing (Bartram, Reference Bartram 2000 Lievens & Harris, Reference Lievens, Harris, Cooper and Robertson 2003) were also in the forefront of those first attempts to study and predict how technology will change the landscape of research and practice in recruitment and selection.

Today, two decades since these articles first appeared, things have progressed a lot technology has made a tremendous progress across all different aspects of social and professional life. Especially, in recruitment and selection, technology has affected the whole recruitment and selection lifecycle. In the following sections we will describe a number of technological developments that have affected the four main stages of the recruitment and selection process: attraction screening, selection and on-boarding.

Technology in Attraction

The first stage of the recruitment and selection process includes the attraction phase. Chapman and Mayers ( Reference Chapman, Mayers, Nikolaou and Oostrom 2015) emphasize the crucial but often undermined role of attraction, as the “series of systems, processes and strategies designed to maximize the size and quality of the applicant pool” (p. 27). Attraction is not identical to recruitment, especially in todays’ digital era. Recruitment is broader, including many different elements, important for the whole selection process, such as the different activities organizations undertake in order to identify a desirable group of candidates, attract them into their employee ranks, and retaining them at least for the short term (Taylor & Collins, Reference Taylor, Collins, Cooper and Locke 2000, p. 306). Recruitment should also be aligned with the organizations’ strategic objectives, therefore especially today, it should include all technology-related activities that influence the recruitment and selection cycle, such as employer branding, candidate experience, etc.

Internet-based, or on-line recruitment was one of the first technological developments in the field that has attracted increased attention both from researchers and practitioners (Bartram, Reference Bartram 2000). Job boards/job sites offering employers the opportunity to advertise their job openings online to a wide audience were the first applications in on-line recruitment and are still used heavily nowadays, since they are often perceived (and probably they are) as highly effective from both recruiters and job applicants (Nikolaou, Reference Nikolaou 2014). Similarly, companies have shown interest in developing specialized career / job sites where they advertise their own job openings. Technology has enabled company career sites to become a very effective tool in attracting and maintain candidates’ interest, supporting extensively the employer branding initiatives and policies a company may undertake (Lievens & Slaughter, Reference Lievens and Slaughter 2016). For example, companies can include in their career sites video-testimonials of current employees describing what it means to work for this company, or recruiters explaining the hiring process to interested candidates. In addition, companies may undertake supplementary steps, such as measuring site visits, improving website characteristics, tracking and following applicants across different media, such as on social media, etc. Sooner rather than later we will see job ads common in digital marketing but still new in human resources, such as SEO (search engine specialization) hiring co-ordinator and SEO career analyst.

Social media though and social networking websites have been the most important development in the field of digital attraction. A topic that has attracted extensive interest from practitioners worldwide but still remains an area which tries to catch up practice and has only recently received increased research interest. In one of the first studies on this topic we explored how job seekers and recruiters use Social Networking Websites (Nikolaou, Reference Nikolaou 2014), arguing that social media offer the opportunity to candidates for increased networking in a cheap and effective way, but also how useful they can be for recruiters as a means of attracting passive candidates, i.e., people who are not actively looking for a job, but who might pay attention to an interesting offer or suggestion by a recruiter. Nevertheless, recent studies have challenged the wide acceptance of social media, raising major concerns about their usefulness both among recruiters (Zhang et al., Reference Zhang, van Iddekinge, Arnold, Roth, Lievens, Lanivich and Jordan 2020) and job-seekers (Johnson & Leo, Reference Johnson and Leo 2020). More research is urgently needed in this field, since there is no sign that the use of LinkedIn especially is going to go away any time soon. On the contrary, early signs have shown that the advent of COVID–19 has shifted both job seekers and recruiters towards more extensive use of social media, according to recent reports in the media (e.g., Wilding, Reference Wilding 2020).

Technology in Screening

The second stage of the process includes screening candidates’ available information regarding their suitability for the position. Traditionally, highly specialized companies were involved in difficult to handle and execute background screening, especially for sensitive positions, such as in the army, the security forces and in financial institutions. The emergence of social media has transformed the scene there as well. Cybervetting has been defined as the use of nongovernmental, noninstitutional online tools or sites (e.g., search engines and social network sites) from employers in order to extract informal, often personal information about prospective or current employees (Berkelaar & Buzzanell, Reference Berkelaar and Buzzanell 2014). Cook et al. ( Reference Cook, Jones-Chick, Roulin and O'Rourke 2020) have recently published an article describing the development of a new scale measuring cybervetting in an attempt to support researchers doing research in this topic. Cybervetting seems to have a strong negative impact on applicant reactions, an important topic we will discuss later. Candidates expect that professionally-oriented websites, such as LinkedIn, will be accessed by potential employers and often encourage this access by including their LinkedIn profile link in their CVs or application forms, but they do not have the same attitude towards personally-oriented social media, such as Facebook or Instagram (Nikolaou et al., Reference Nikolaou, Ahmed, Woods, Anderson and Costa 2020).

Technological developments have also facilitated the administration and execution of many time-consuming tasks in the screening process. For example, the extensive use of applicant tracking systems (ATS) can reduce the duration of the screening process, providing effective resume storage, resume parsing and keyword search for very large numbers of applications. They can also offer additional opportunities of combining the information candidates provide themselves with the information publicly available for them on social media. Many HR start-up companies have focused on these issues recently, since they seem to provide increased opportunities for collaboration with computer/data scientists and the application of technologies, such as data mining, machine translation or even artificial intelligence.

Technology in Selection

Traditionally, work and organizational psychologists studying the impact of technology in employee selection have focused on on-line testing (Ryan & Ployhart, Reference Ryan and Ployhart 2014). More recently though two new selection methods have attracted increased attention. These are the asynchronous interviewing and gamification/games-based assessment, especially in relation to applicant reactions and candidate experience.

The asynchronous interview, often also called video or digital interview, is defined as the type of interview where candidates are required to record their responses to a set of interview questions they are given and submit them on-line. The digital interview is more likely to be used during the initial steps of the selection process in order to assess minimum job requirements and reduce the applicants’ pool. Managers might interview several applicants at the same time without being present, while multiple raters might view the interview afterwards in order to collectively reach to an agreement (Brenner et al., Reference Brenner, Ortner and Fay 2016). Companies specializing in data analytics in selection attempt to measure many indicators of the applicant during the digital interviews, such as the number of times they blinked, seconds between responses, body temperature changes, word speed, and so on (e.g., HireVue) sometimes with the use of sensor devices, automatic extraction and evaluation of data and visualization to automate the entire interview process (Langer et al., Reference Langer, König and Papathanasiou 2019). On the other hand, candidates have the opportunity to apply to international job positions, thus saving money and time (Guchait et al., Reference Guchait, Ruetzler, Taylor and Toldi 2014). However, the first studies exploring how participants perceive the digital interview and also how effective it is compared to the traditional interview were not very supportive. Langer et al. ( Reference Langer, König and Krause 2017) showed no difference in organizational attractiveness levels, participants considered digital interviews to be creepier and less personal, reporting increased privacy concerns.

Another major development in employee selection methods has been gamification and games-based assessment (GBA). Gamification refers to the incorporation of game elements in non-gaming contexts, such as employee recruitment and selection (Georgiou et al., Reference Georgiou, Gouras and Nikolaou 2019). Gamifying a selection method often implies the conversion and adoption of an existing selection method, such as a personality test or a situational judgment test into a gamifying version. Using mobile or computing devices, candidates are exposed to a gamified environment or virtual word with questions that candidates have to answer. The use of game elements in the selection process might promote fun, transparency, challenge and interaction. On the other hand, in GBA and serious games, actual on-line or traditional games are used, sometimes specifically built for use in selection, albeit not necessarily. Gamification and GBA have recently attracted a lot of attention especially among practitioners, since they seem to offer a number of advantages compared to traditional selection methods. For example, they seem to appeal to younger candidates, not necessarily with past gaming experience. Early research in this field has shown that gamification can be a reliable and valid selection method (Georgiou et al., Reference Georgiou, Gouras and Nikolaou 2019 Nikolaou et al., Reference Nikolaou, Georgiou and Kotsasarlidou 2019) raising positive reactions among candidates and increased organizational attractiveness (Georgiou & Nikolaou, Reference Georgiou and Nikolaou 2020 Gkorezis et al., Reference Gkorezis, Georgiou, Nikolaou and Kyriazati 2020). However, as it is the case for any new selection method, we need more research to confirm further its usefulness and applicability both from a theoretical and a practical viewpoint.

Applicant reactions research has become an important topic of study within the broader area of employee selection and assessment. It has been a fruitful and highly productive stream of research since the mid-1980s. McCarthy et al. ( Reference McCarthy, Bauer, Truxillo, Anderson, Costa and Ahmed 2017) describe applicant reactions, as “…how job candidates perceive and respond to selection tools (e.g., personality tests, work samples, situational judgment tests) on the basis of their application experience. They include perceptions of fairness and justice, feelings of anxiety, and levels of motivation, among others” (p. 1695). It is obvious that applicant reactions, often called in practice “candidate experience” is an important area where technology has a major impact. For example, the lack of a personal, face-to-face interaction with the interviewer, and the candidates’ perception of inability to influence the outcome of the interview process, as in the traditional interview (Nikolaou, Reference Nikolaou 2011 Nikolaou & Judge, Reference Nikolaou and Judge 2007), has been a major drawback of the digital interview and it will be difficult to change this in the future, despite the obvious advantages they offer. Moreover, candidates nowadays have increased opportunities to share their experiences with other candidates. The selection process is not any more an isolated and “behind the closed doors” process, as it used to be in the past. More than 41 million people per month now use Glassdoor, a website providing for free “company reviews, CEO approval ratings, salary reports, interview reviews and questions, office photos and more” Footnote 1 . Applicants sharing their negative experiences with an employer in social media and other websites, such as glassdoor.com, are quite likely to generate a negative word of mouth and create a respective image of potential employers, negatively affecting the company’s employer branding, or even its financial valuation. Thus, this information might affect candidates’ job search activities and/or create negative word of mouth between potential job seekers, even without immediate experience of the organization’s recruitment and selection process.

Technology & On-Boarding

The final stage of the selection cycle includes the day-after the candidate joins an organization, as a newcomer. The importance of on-boarding and socialization have been widely explored as a significant factor of employee adjustment (Bauer et al., Reference Bauer, Bodner, Erdogan, Truxillo and Tucker 2007 Bauer et al., in press). The use of socialization techniques, such as formal or informal training, on-the-job training, coaching-mentoring, etc. have proven to be very effective for the quick adjustment of newcomers in their new roles. Many companies now make extensive use of technology in order to improve the usefulness of these techniques, offering access to specialized company apps, on-line training, e-mentoring for career development, intranet resembling social-media sites, such as Microsoft’s Yammer, etc. (Sharma & Bhatnagar, Reference Sharma and Bhatnagar 2016). However, the potential of using technology in the whole cycle of the selection process, including on-boarding, will fulfil its purpose when companies will be able to make effective use of not only HR metrics but computer science methods as well, such as data mining with the combination of external (pre-entry) and internal (post-entry) data bringing recruitment and selection in the big data era.


Doctoral Degree

A doctoral degree is the highest educational level a therapist can achieve. While it is not required to practice as a therapist, you will have to get a doctorate if you want to become a licensed psychologist. A doctoral degree can also help you gain more knowledge and specialize in a particular area. For example, some therapists choose to complete doctoral degrees in child psychology so that they can learn more about treating children.

You will take classes as part of your PhD training, but you will also have to write a dissertation. This challenging paper can introduce a new theory to contribute to the field, or present a research study you conducted. You will need to get approval for your dissertation topic, and you will have to defend it in front of a committee after it is completed.

Future psychologists typically choose between obtaining a PsyD and a PhD in a doctorate program. The PsyD is a practical degree rather than a research-oriented one, it prepares future psychologists to act as counselors. A PhD can also prepare you to become a psychologist, but the focus is generally on research and theory rather than professional training.

A doctoral degree is different from a medical degree, although people with PhDs are called doctors. People with doctoral degrees cannot write prescriptions for medication. If you want to be able to prescribe psychotropic medication to people, you will have to attend medical school and train to become a physician or psychiatrist.

Whether you choose to pursue a master's degree or a doctoral degree, remember that each person completes their education at their own pace and in their own way. You may take time off from school during your academic career, work part-time while taking part-time classes, or begin your education to become a therapist after many years spent raising a family or working in a different field altogether. You also may transfer schools during your educational process or adjust your major or program focus as you go.


Techniques for personal accomplishments are:

  1. Percent completed-ness - this is where an individual needs to complete baseline requirements to reach 100% - these accomplishments can be fixed or gated for specific milestones (rankings) to show one's awesomeness to the community, or just a simple set like LinkedIn's "is my profile complete?" metric.
  2. Activity Counts - any number of actions performed can be tracked and assigned values, the more these actions occur, the greater the value. Some level of validation to mitigate "gaming the system" would be a good idea.

How Long Does It Take to Become a Psychologist?

Emily is a fact checker, editor, and writer who has expertise in psychology content.

When considering a career in psychology, you will likely wonder how much time it will take to become licensed and what type of degrees you'll need to attain. The answer is not always so cut-and-dry. The amount of time it takes to complete your college education depends largely on your specialty area and career interests.

In most cases, becoming a licensed psychologist can take as little as eight years or as long as 12 years.

If you are considering a career in psychology, it is important to be aware of all of the educational and training requirements it takes to become a licensed psychologist. Take the time to research all of your options and carefully examine your goals before you decide if this is the right career for you.


Technology and Recruitment/Selection

Recruitment and selection have probably benefited the most from the advent of technological solutions during the last few decades. The first studies exploring the role of e-hr appeared early in the 2000s (Karakanian, Reference Karakanian 2000 Stanton & Coovert, Reference Stanton and Coovert 2004) predicting the beneficial impact of technology, across the different HR functions. Back then, the focus was οn topics such as the use of the intranet, e-learning, virtual teams, HR Information Systems, etc. Nevertheless, internet recruitment, employment / career websites and on-line psychological testing (Bartram, Reference Bartram 2000 Lievens & Harris, Reference Lievens, Harris, Cooper and Robertson 2003) were also in the forefront of those first attempts to study and predict how technology will change the landscape of research and practice in recruitment and selection.

Today, two decades since these articles first appeared, things have progressed a lot technology has made a tremendous progress across all different aspects of social and professional life. Especially, in recruitment and selection, technology has affected the whole recruitment and selection lifecycle. In the following sections we will describe a number of technological developments that have affected the four main stages of the recruitment and selection process: attraction screening, selection and on-boarding.

Technology in Attraction

The first stage of the recruitment and selection process includes the attraction phase. Chapman and Mayers ( Reference Chapman, Mayers, Nikolaou and Oostrom 2015) emphasize the crucial but often undermined role of attraction, as the “series of systems, processes and strategies designed to maximize the size and quality of the applicant pool” (p. 27). Attraction is not identical to recruitment, especially in todays’ digital era. Recruitment is broader, including many different elements, important for the whole selection process, such as the different activities organizations undertake in order to identify a desirable group of candidates, attract them into their employee ranks, and retaining them at least for the short term (Taylor & Collins, Reference Taylor, Collins, Cooper and Locke 2000, p. 306). Recruitment should also be aligned with the organizations’ strategic objectives, therefore especially today, it should include all technology-related activities that influence the recruitment and selection cycle, such as employer branding, candidate experience, etc.

Internet-based, or on-line recruitment was one of the first technological developments in the field that has attracted increased attention both from researchers and practitioners (Bartram, Reference Bartram 2000). Job boards/job sites offering employers the opportunity to advertise their job openings online to a wide audience were the first applications in on-line recruitment and are still used heavily nowadays, since they are often perceived (and probably they are) as highly effective from both recruiters and job applicants (Nikolaou, Reference Nikolaou 2014). Similarly, companies have shown interest in developing specialized career / job sites where they advertise their own job openings. Technology has enabled company career sites to become a very effective tool in attracting and maintain candidates’ interest, supporting extensively the employer branding initiatives and policies a company may undertake (Lievens & Slaughter, Reference Lievens and Slaughter 2016). For example, companies can include in their career sites video-testimonials of current employees describing what it means to work for this company, or recruiters explaining the hiring process to interested candidates. In addition, companies may undertake supplementary steps, such as measuring site visits, improving website characteristics, tracking and following applicants across different media, such as on social media, etc. Sooner rather than later we will see job ads common in digital marketing but still new in human resources, such as SEO (search engine specialization) hiring co-ordinator and SEO career analyst.

Social media though and social networking websites have been the most important development in the field of digital attraction. A topic that has attracted extensive interest from practitioners worldwide but still remains an area which tries to catch up practice and has only recently received increased research interest. In one of the first studies on this topic we explored how job seekers and recruiters use Social Networking Websites (Nikolaou, Reference Nikolaou 2014), arguing that social media offer the opportunity to candidates for increased networking in a cheap and effective way, but also how useful they can be for recruiters as a means of attracting passive candidates, i.e., people who are not actively looking for a job, but who might pay attention to an interesting offer or suggestion by a recruiter. Nevertheless, recent studies have challenged the wide acceptance of social media, raising major concerns about their usefulness both among recruiters (Zhang et al., Reference Zhang, van Iddekinge, Arnold, Roth, Lievens, Lanivich and Jordan 2020) and job-seekers (Johnson & Leo, Reference Johnson and Leo 2020). More research is urgently needed in this field, since there is no sign that the use of LinkedIn especially is going to go away any time soon. On the contrary, early signs have shown that the advent of COVID–19 has shifted both job seekers and recruiters towards more extensive use of social media, according to recent reports in the media (e.g., Wilding, Reference Wilding 2020).

Technology in Screening

The second stage of the process includes screening candidates’ available information regarding their suitability for the position. Traditionally, highly specialized companies were involved in difficult to handle and execute background screening, especially for sensitive positions, such as in the army, the security forces and in financial institutions. The emergence of social media has transformed the scene there as well. Cybervetting has been defined as the use of nongovernmental, noninstitutional online tools or sites (e.g., search engines and social network sites) from employers in order to extract informal, often personal information about prospective or current employees (Berkelaar & Buzzanell, Reference Berkelaar and Buzzanell 2014). Cook et al. ( Reference Cook, Jones-Chick, Roulin and O'Rourke 2020) have recently published an article describing the development of a new scale measuring cybervetting in an attempt to support researchers doing research in this topic. Cybervetting seems to have a strong negative impact on applicant reactions, an important topic we will discuss later. Candidates expect that professionally-oriented websites, such as LinkedIn, will be accessed by potential employers and often encourage this access by including their LinkedIn profile link in their CVs or application forms, but they do not have the same attitude towards personally-oriented social media, such as Facebook or Instagram (Nikolaou et al., Reference Nikolaou, Ahmed, Woods, Anderson and Costa 2020).

Technological developments have also facilitated the administration and execution of many time-consuming tasks in the screening process. For example, the extensive use of applicant tracking systems (ATS) can reduce the duration of the screening process, providing effective resume storage, resume parsing and keyword search for very large numbers of applications. They can also offer additional opportunities of combining the information candidates provide themselves with the information publicly available for them on social media. Many HR start-up companies have focused on these issues recently, since they seem to provide increased opportunities for collaboration with computer/data scientists and the application of technologies, such as data mining, machine translation or even artificial intelligence.

Technology in Selection

Traditionally, work and organizational psychologists studying the impact of technology in employee selection have focused on on-line testing (Ryan & Ployhart, Reference Ryan and Ployhart 2014). More recently though two new selection methods have attracted increased attention. These are the asynchronous interviewing and gamification/games-based assessment, especially in relation to applicant reactions and candidate experience.

The asynchronous interview, often also called video or digital interview, is defined as the type of interview where candidates are required to record their responses to a set of interview questions they are given and submit them on-line. The digital interview is more likely to be used during the initial steps of the selection process in order to assess minimum job requirements and reduce the applicants’ pool. Managers might interview several applicants at the same time without being present, while multiple raters might view the interview afterwards in order to collectively reach to an agreement (Brenner et al., Reference Brenner, Ortner and Fay 2016). Companies specializing in data analytics in selection attempt to measure many indicators of the applicant during the digital interviews, such as the number of times they blinked, seconds between responses, body temperature changes, word speed, and so on (e.g., HireVue) sometimes with the use of sensor devices, automatic extraction and evaluation of data and visualization to automate the entire interview process (Langer et al., Reference Langer, König and Papathanasiou 2019). On the other hand, candidates have the opportunity to apply to international job positions, thus saving money and time (Guchait et al., Reference Guchait, Ruetzler, Taylor and Toldi 2014). However, the first studies exploring how participants perceive the digital interview and also how effective it is compared to the traditional interview were not very supportive. Langer et al. ( Reference Langer, König and Krause 2017) showed no difference in organizational attractiveness levels, participants considered digital interviews to be creepier and less personal, reporting increased privacy concerns.

Another major development in employee selection methods has been gamification and games-based assessment (GBA). Gamification refers to the incorporation of game elements in non-gaming contexts, such as employee recruitment and selection (Georgiou et al., Reference Georgiou, Gouras and Nikolaou 2019). Gamifying a selection method often implies the conversion and adoption of an existing selection method, such as a personality test or a situational judgment test into a gamifying version. Using mobile or computing devices, candidates are exposed to a gamified environment or virtual word with questions that candidates have to answer. The use of game elements in the selection process might promote fun, transparency, challenge and interaction. On the other hand, in GBA and serious games, actual on-line or traditional games are used, sometimes specifically built for use in selection, albeit not necessarily. Gamification and GBA have recently attracted a lot of attention especially among practitioners, since they seem to offer a number of advantages compared to traditional selection methods. For example, they seem to appeal to younger candidates, not necessarily with past gaming experience. Early research in this field has shown that gamification can be a reliable and valid selection method (Georgiou et al., Reference Georgiou, Gouras and Nikolaou 2019 Nikolaou et al., Reference Nikolaou, Georgiou and Kotsasarlidou 2019) raising positive reactions among candidates and increased organizational attractiveness (Georgiou & Nikolaou, Reference Georgiou and Nikolaou 2020 Gkorezis et al., Reference Gkorezis, Georgiou, Nikolaou and Kyriazati 2020). However, as it is the case for any new selection method, we need more research to confirm further its usefulness and applicability both from a theoretical and a practical viewpoint.

Applicant reactions research has become an important topic of study within the broader area of employee selection and assessment. It has been a fruitful and highly productive stream of research since the mid-1980s. McCarthy et al. ( Reference McCarthy, Bauer, Truxillo, Anderson, Costa and Ahmed 2017) describe applicant reactions, as “…how job candidates perceive and respond to selection tools (e.g., personality tests, work samples, situational judgment tests) on the basis of their application experience. They include perceptions of fairness and justice, feelings of anxiety, and levels of motivation, among others” (p. 1695). It is obvious that applicant reactions, often called in practice “candidate experience” is an important area where technology has a major impact. For example, the lack of a personal, face-to-face interaction with the interviewer, and the candidates’ perception of inability to influence the outcome of the interview process, as in the traditional interview (Nikolaou, Reference Nikolaou 2011 Nikolaou & Judge, Reference Nikolaou and Judge 2007), has been a major drawback of the digital interview and it will be difficult to change this in the future, despite the obvious advantages they offer. Moreover, candidates nowadays have increased opportunities to share their experiences with other candidates. The selection process is not any more an isolated and “behind the closed doors” process, as it used to be in the past. More than 41 million people per month now use Glassdoor, a website providing for free “company reviews, CEO approval ratings, salary reports, interview reviews and questions, office photos and more” Footnote 1 . Applicants sharing their negative experiences with an employer in social media and other websites, such as glassdoor.com, are quite likely to generate a negative word of mouth and create a respective image of potential employers, negatively affecting the company’s employer branding, or even its financial valuation. Thus, this information might affect candidates’ job search activities and/or create negative word of mouth between potential job seekers, even without immediate experience of the organization’s recruitment and selection process.

Technology & On-Boarding

The final stage of the selection cycle includes the day-after the candidate joins an organization, as a newcomer. The importance of on-boarding and socialization have been widely explored as a significant factor of employee adjustment (Bauer et al., Reference Bauer, Bodner, Erdogan, Truxillo and Tucker 2007 Bauer et al., in press). The use of socialization techniques, such as formal or informal training, on-the-job training, coaching-mentoring, etc. have proven to be very effective for the quick adjustment of newcomers in their new roles. Many companies now make extensive use of technology in order to improve the usefulness of these techniques, offering access to specialized company apps, on-line training, e-mentoring for career development, intranet resembling social-media sites, such as Microsoft’s Yammer, etc. (Sharma & Bhatnagar, Reference Sharma and Bhatnagar 2016). However, the potential of using technology in the whole cycle of the selection process, including on-boarding, will fulfil its purpose when companies will be able to make effective use of not only HR metrics but computer science methods as well, such as data mining with the combination of external (pre-entry) and internal (post-entry) data bringing recruitment and selection in the big data era.


How Long Does It Take to Become a Psychologist?

Emily is a fact checker, editor, and writer who has expertise in psychology content.

When considering a career in psychology, you will likely wonder how much time it will take to become licensed and what type of degrees you'll need to attain. The answer is not always so cut-and-dry. The amount of time it takes to complete your college education depends largely on your specialty area and career interests.

In most cases, becoming a licensed psychologist can take as little as eight years or as long as 12 years.

If you are considering a career in psychology, it is important to be aware of all of the educational and training requirements it takes to become a licensed psychologist. Take the time to research all of your options and carefully examine your goals before you decide if this is the right career for you.


What are the minimal requirements for successful gamification? - Psychology

Jack Adams-Webber, Kathryn Belicki, John G. Benjafield, Nancy DeCourville, David DiBattista, Stefan M. Brudzynski, Jane Dywan, Carolyn Hafer, Harry T. Hunt, Dorothy Markiewicz, John Mitterer, Robert D. Ogilvie, Edward W. G. Pomeroy, Joan Preston, Linda Rose-Krasnor, Stanley W. Sadava, Sidney J. Segalowitz, Paul D. Tyson

Karen Arnell, Michael Ashton, Angela Book, Kimberly Cote, Veena D. Dwivedi, Gordon Hodson, Tanya Martini, Cheryl McCormick, Catherine J. Mondloch, Tim Murphy, Gary Pickering, Teena Willoughby

Michael Busseri, Andrew V. Dane, Stephen M. Emrich, Angela D. Evans, Dawn E. Good, Caitlin Mahy, Cameron Muir, Elizabeth Shulman

Karen Campbell, Paula Duarte-Guterman, William Hall, Scott Neufeld, Charlis Raineki, Sabrina Thai

Sherrie Bieman-Copland, Marie Good

Undergraduate Program Officer

905-688-5550, extension 5050

The Department of Psychology offers four-year programs of study leading to a BA (Honours) Psychology, a BA with Major Psychology, and a three-year BA Pass degree program. Programs are designed to provide students with a broad introduction to the field of psychology including research methodology, psychological theory and application. In addition, the 20-credit degree programs give students the opportunity to prepare for admission to professional and advanced degree training in a variety of fields. Students interested in pursuing graduate study specifically in psychology should complete the Honours program.

Students wishing to major in Psychology must apply to declare their major. Declare or Change Major forms are available in the Registrar's Office and online at brocku.ca/registrar/forms. The Department believes that a broadly-based liberal arts and science background is appropriate in conjunction with a major in Psychology. It is required that Honours students acquire some background in other disciplines as part of their undergraduate program by taking elective courses in areas outside of Psychology. Students wishing to pursue an Honours (Research) degree must complete a PSYC 4F91 Application. Applications are available in the Department of Psychology.

Students wishing to take PSYC 3F40 and 3P39 require a minimum 77 percent major average. Students wishing to take PSYC 4F91, 4P93 and 4P95 require a minimum 80 percent major average.

The requirements for graduation with a BA (Honours) are a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent non-major average. The requirements for a BA with Major and a Pass BA are a minimum 60 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent overall average.

The Psychology Co-op program combines academic and work terms over a five-year period. Students spend two years in an academic setting studying the core concepts of psychology prior to taking the first work placement. In addition to the current fees for courses in academic study terms, Psychology Co-op students are assessed an annual administrative fee (see the Schedule of Fees).

Eligibility to continue is based on the student's major average and non-major average. A student with a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent non-major average will be permitted to continue. A student with a major average lower than 70 percent will not be permitted to continue in the Psychology Co-op program. If a student subsequently raises their major average to 70 percent, the student may be readmitted only if approved by the Co-op Admission Committee.

All students in the Co-operative Education program are required to read, sign and adhere to the terms of the Student Regulations Waiver and Co-op Student Manual (brocku.ca/co-op/current-students/co-op-student-manuals) as articulated by the Co-op Programs Office. In addition, eligibility to continue in the co-op option is based on the student's major average and non-major average, and the ability to demonstrate the motivation and potential to pursue a professional career.

Each four-month co-operative education work term must be registered. Once students are registered in a co-op work term, they are expected to fulfill their commitment. If the placement accepted is for more than one four-month work term, students are committed to complete all terms. Students may not withdraw from or terminate a work term without permission from the Director, Co-op Program Office.

The Psychology Co-op program designation will be awarded to those students who have completed a four-year degree (Honours or BA with Major) and who have successfully completed a minimum of twelve months of Co-op work experience.

The Policing and Criminal Justice program involves courses offered through Brock University and Niagara College. This four-year program combines training in policing and criminal justice with an education in a chosen academic discipline, which may be Communication Studies, Psychology, Political Science or Sociology. Upon successful completion of the program, students majoring in Communication Studies, Human Geography, Political Science and Sociology will receive an Honours BA degree from Brock and a Police Foundations diploma from Niagara College. Upon successful completion of the program, students majoring in Psychology will receive a BA with Major degree from Brock and a Police Foundations diploma from Niagara College. The program caters to the increasing demand in society for professionals who possess both solid applied skills and the substantive knowledge needed to apply them to the areas of policing and criminal justice. This would ordinarily involve attending college after gaining a university degree, but the Brock and Niagara program combines the two in a single integrated package. Applicants must have a minimum 70 percent overall average to be considered for admission to the program. Volunteering experience is considered an asset. Successful applicants must maintain a minimum 70 percent overall average during Year 2 and meet other program requirements to continue in the program. Enrolment in this program is limited. Admission to the program is not guaranteed by attainment of the minimum requirements. Application forms for the Policing and Criminal Justice program are available from the Office of the Dean of Social Sciences.

Please consult the Policing and Criminal Justice entry for a listing of program requirements.

In 20 credit Honours degree programs a maximum of eight credits may be numbered 1 (alpha) 00 to 1 (alpha) 99 at least three credits must be numbered 2 (alpha) 90 or above at least three credits must be numbered 3 (alpha) 90 or above and the remaining credits must be numbered 2 (alpha) 00 or above.

In this 20 credit BA with Major degree program a maximum of eight credits may be numbered 1 (alpha) 00 to 1 (alpha) 99 at least four and one-half credits must be numbered 2 (alpha) 90 or above at least one and one-half credits must be numbered 3 (alpha) 90 or above and the remaining credits must be numbered 2 (alpha) 00 or above.

In 15 credit degree programs a maximum of eight credits may be numbered 1 (alpha) 00 to 1 (alpha) 00 at least three credits must be numbered 2 (alpha) 90 or above and the remaining credits must be numbered 2 (alpha) 00 or above.

In some circumstances, in order to meet university degree and program requirements, more than 15 or 20 credits may be taken.

Comprehensive Course Categories

Among the total number of Psychology courses taken in year 3 and 4, students completing the Comprehensive stream program must take minimum of one-half credit from each category

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 89
one-half PSYC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

PSYC 3P30 (see program note 4)
two and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 to 3 (alpha) 99 (see program note 5)
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2( alpha )00 to 2( alpha )89
one-half PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

PSYC 3F40 and 3P39 (see program notes 2 and 4)
one and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 to 3 (alpha) 99
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 0N90, 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 89
one-half PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

PSYC 3P30 (see program note 4)
two and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 to 3 (alpha) 99 (see program note 5)
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 4P07 or 4P92
PSYC 4P08
two PSYC credit numbered 3 (alpha) 90 to 4 (alpha) 99 (see program note 5)
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 0N90, 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2( alpha )00 to 2( alpha )89
one-half PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

PSYC 3F40 and 3P39 (see program notes 2 and 4)
one and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 or above
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 4F91, 4P92, and 4P93 (see program note 2)
one PSYC credit numbered 3 (alpha) 90 to 4 (alpha) 99 (see program note 3)
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2( alpha )00 to 2( alpha )89
one-half PSYC credt numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

PSYC 3P30 (see program note 4)
two and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 to 3 (alpha) 99
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 0N90, 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2( alpha )00 to 2( alpha )89
one-half PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

PSYC 3P30 (see program note 4)
two and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 to 3 (alpha) 99
two elective credits (see program note 1)

One and one-half PSYC credits numbered 2 (alpha) 90 to 4 (alpha) 99
one PSYC credit numbered 3 (alpha) 90 to 4 (alpha) 99
PSYC 4P07
two elective credits (see program note 1)

For Yukon College students attending Brock in Year Three

(taken at Brock University)

PSYC 1F90
one Humanities context credit
one Sciences context credit
two elective credits (see program note 1)

PSYC 2F23 and 2P01
one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49
PSYC 2P25 or 2P30
one PSYC credit numbered 2( alpha )00 to 2( alpha )89
one-half PSYC credit numbered 2 (alpha) 00 to 2 (alpha) 99
one elective credit (see program note 1)

Students may take a combined major in Psychology and a second discipline. For requirements in the other discipline, the student should consult the relevant department/centre. It should be noted that not all departments/centres provide a combined major option. All combined major students should consult with the Administrator or Co-ordinator in each department/centre in order to avoid duplication of courses.

Consult the Biological Sciences entry for a listing of program requirements.

This is a specialized Combined Honours program that has students choosing to focus on either Child and Youth Studies or on Psychology upon entry to Year Three. Consult the Child and Youth Studies entry for a listing of program requirements.

Students in other disciplines can obtain a minor in Psychology within their degree program by completing the following courses with a minimum 60 percent overall average:

Consult the Policing and Criminal Justice entry for a listing of program requirements.

The graduate programs allow for study and directed research with a concentration in behavioural neuroscience, life span development, or social/personality. For further information, including faculty interests, see the current graduate calendar or the Psychology Department website.

Note that not all courses are offered in every session. Refer to the applicable term timetable for details.

# Indicates a cross listed course

* Indicates primary offering of a cross listed course

Students must check to ensure that prerequisites are met. Students may be deregistered, at the request of the instructor, from any course for which prerequisites and/or restrictions have not been met.

Foundations of Psychology

Methodological approaches and contemporary issues in psychology and their application to everyday life.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Note: prerequisite to all courses in Psychology except PSYC 2F23 and 3Q91.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 1F25 and 1P28 .

Statistics and Research Design in the Behavioural Sciences

Principles of research design and data analysis in the context of psychological research.

Lectures, tutorial, 4 hours per week.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 or one Social Science credit.

Note: 4U Mathematics of Data Management or equivalent background recommended.

Roadmap to Careers in Psychology

Career exploration and applications in psychology and related fields.

Seminar, online activities, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single) majors. Not open to combined majors and minors.

Note: students are expected to register during their second year of study. Must be completed before registering in required year 4 courses.

Introduction to theories and research in human development across the lifespan. Topics include development in physical, perceptual, cognitive, linguistic, social and/or emotional domains.

Lectures, 1.5 hours per week online activities, 1.5 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR, RECL, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Note: may be offered on-site or online. Students may not concurrently register in CHYS 2P10.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in CHYS 2F05 and 2P10.

Mental disorders with respect to classification, diagnosis, etiology, treatment, and applied case studies. Biological and psychosocial risk factors for mental disorders.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3F20 and 3P28.

How the mind processes information. Topics include recognition, attention, memory, problem solving, judgment and decision making.

Lectures, lab, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Note: may be offered on-site or online.

Personality and Individual Differences

Introduction to theory and research in personality and related individual differences. Topics include measurement and structure of personality characteristics biological bases, genetic and environmental origins, and evolutionary function of personality personality disorders personality as a predictor of life outcomes other domains of psychological variation (religious beliefs and political attitudes, sexuality, occupational interests, mental abilities).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Fundamentals of Social Psychology

Theory, methods and research examining the influence of others on phenomena such as cognition, the self, attitudes, group processes and communication.

Lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until dates specified in Registration guide.

Introduction to Brain and Behaviour

Introduction to biological aspects of behavioural neuroscience. Basics of the structure and function of the nervous system in relation to behaviour and reviews activities of the brain from the neuron through to interrelationships among neural systems. Topics include neuronal function, drugs and behaviour, brain plasticity and recovery from injury, sensation and perception, and the organization of the brain emphasizing human behaviour.

Lectures, 3 hours per week seminar, 1 hour per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Note: student may not concurrently register in PSYC (NEUR) 2P36.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC (NEUR) 2P36.

Introduction to behavioural neuroscience and biological aspects of behaviour. Basics of the structure and function of the nervous system in relation to behaviour and activities of the brain from the neuron through to interrelationships among neural systems (central and peripheral nervous system, and hormonal regulation). Topics include neuronal function, drugs and behaviour, brain plasticity and recovery from injury, sensation and perception, and the organization of the brain emphasizing human behaviour.

Lectures, 3 hours per week lab, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Note: materials fee required. Students may not concurrently register in PSYC 2P35.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 2P35.

Physiological basis of neural mechanisms relevant to human actions and cognitions such as motivation (sleep, sexual behaviour, eating), emotions and stress, learning and memory, communication and language, and thought (psychological/psychiatric disorders).

Lectures, 3 hours per week lab, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Introduction to human perception emphasizing visual and auditory perception, including theory and applications to neurophysiology, speech recognition and development. Integration of smell, taste, balance and time perception to demonstrate the biological and cognitive bases of perception.

Lectures, 2.5 hours per week, seminar, 1 hour, alternating weeks.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Introduction to Community Psychology

Overview of history, approaches and ethical issues with psychological research and practice in community settings including deinstitutionalization, research with vulnerable communities, Indigenous research, structural interventions, and community empowerment.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3P52 .

Introduction to psychological aspects of health and illness. How behaviour, social context and attitudes influence physiological processes and our health. Topics include health promotion, stress,psychoneuroimmunology, health and physical activity, pain and the health care system.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, PHTH majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, PHTH majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3P51 .

Interaction between psychology and behaviour in sport. Understanding individual and team optimal performance and athlete development.

lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to BKin, BPhEd, BPhEd (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior), BPhEd (Honours)/BEd (Junior/Intermediate) and BSc (Kin) majors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to BKin, BPhEd, BPhEd (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior), BPhEd (Honours)/BEd (Junior/Intermediate) BSc (Kin) majors and PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration Guide. Students must have a minimum of 3.5 overall credits.

Facilitating Communication and Critical Thinking in Groups

Examination of theories and concepts related to the successful facilitation of groups. Topics may include the promotion of critical thinking and effective communication, group-based learning, intergroup dynamics and conflict resolution.

Lectures, seminar, 5 hours per week group-based facilitation, 4 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum of 8.0 overall credits, 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90 and permission of the instructor.

Research methods emphasizing correlational and experimental designs and associated analyses (regression and ANOVA). Development of the student's capacity to evaluate scientific literature, generate testable hypotheses, gather and analyze data and report results in a manuscript.

Lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors with a minimum 77 percent major average and a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: Neuroscience majors with a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum of 8.0 overall credits may register. Contact the Department.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3P30.

Visual Perception From Eye to Brain

Historical and contemporary issues in the cognitive neuroscience of visual perception. Different approaches to perception, emphasizing neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Topics may include face and object perception, emotion, short and long-term memory, and neural correlates of consciousness.

Lectures, lab, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors, GHUM , SOSC students and minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience

Neural basis of human cognition, emphasizing contemporary methods in cognitive neuroscience. Methodology (e.g. neuroimaging), perception, memory, language, emotion, executive functions and social cognition.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 1.0 PSYC credit above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 PSYC 2P35 or PSYC 2P36 one of PSYC 2P20, 2P49 or permission of the instructor.

Theories of Development and Socialization

Interdisciplinary exploration of child and youth development and socialization, including the foundational literature in psychology, sociology and anthropology, as well as contemporary and critical interpretive theories of childhood and youth.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior) majors and CHYS minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior) majors, GHUM , SOSC students and CHYS minors. Students must have a minimum of 7.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90 or permission of the Department.

Theories and research pertaining to development during adolescence. Topics include biological, cognitive and socioemotional development, and the various contexts (family, peers, schools, culture) in which development occurs.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, PHTH majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, PHTH majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90. Not open to CHYS (single or combined) majors.

Theories and methods of lifespan development as applied to the special issues that emerge during late adulthood how physiological, social and cognitive factors interact as individuals cope with the tasks of later years.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior), HEAR , NEUR, PHTH , SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior), HEAR , NEUR, PHTH , SPLS majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Current theories and research on human memory from cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Encoding, storing, and retrieving memories in different time scales and/or systems of memory (e.g., short-term memory, working memory, long-term memory, prospective memory).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: may be offered on-site or online

Persuasion and Propaganda

Psychology of social influence, with particular emphasis on persuasion and propaganda.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: may be offered on-site or online.

Theory and research on how we make sense of ourselves and our social world. Topics include goals, mood, memory, hypothesistesting, counterfactual thinking, stereotypes and culture.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. After thatdate open to PSYC (single and combined) majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Determinants, varieties and consequences of parenting, focusing on psychological research findings in contemporary parenting/parenthood issues. Topics include different styles of parenting, parent-child relationships, child maltreatment, parenting children with different temperaments, and parenting in ecological contexts.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), CHHS , CHLH , CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Classic Theories of Personality

Introduction to personality psychology using a heorist by theorist approach. Classic theories of personality, including, psychoanalytic, humanistic and social learning approaches.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single of combined) majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Adolescent development from a psychobiological perspective. Topics include occurrence and consequence of early puberty, the influence of hormones and social factors on adolescent development, and adolescent engagement in risky behaviour.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: may be offered on-site or online

Introduction to Abnormal Psychology

Selected mental disorders with respect to classification, diagnosis, etiology and treatment. Biological, psychological and social determinants of psychopathology.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to RECL majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits. Not open to PSYC (single or combined) majors.

Note: may be offered on-site or online.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 2P15 and 3F20 .

Critical Thinking in Psychology

Development of scientific thinking and discovery procedures in psychology. The design of experiments and quasi-experiments. Control of variables, statistical power and alternative sources of data. Critical analysis of typical examples of contemporary psychological research.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors with either a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3F40.

Applied Social Psychology

Theory and research of social psychology as applied to specific areas of practical and social concern, such as physical and mental health, the justice system, the workplace, education, and the environment. Planning and evaluating social psychological interventions.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single and combined) majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

The Development of Deception

Development of non-verbal and verbal deceptive behaviours from the preschool years into adolescence. Influence of cognitive development on deceptive behaviours as well as social factors that influence lie-telling and deceptive behaviours. Legal and social implications of deception.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Intergroup Behaviour

Social psychological theories and research in the area of intergroup relations and intergroup conflict. Topics include realistic conflict theory, social identity theory, social exchange, relative deprivation and research on intergroup perceptions and attitudes. Current issues/controversies and implications for the resolution of intergroup conflict.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), BCMN , COMM, MCMN majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Human Sexuality

Introduction to the psychological study of human sexuality. Biopsychosocial approaches are applied to different issues in human sexuality. Topics may include sexual differentiation, gender identity and sexual orientation, attraction and love, paraphilias, and sexual physiology.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in HLSC 2P50.

Conflict, Contradictions and Development

Conflict in early human development including the understanding of the causes, management and outcomes of conflicts. Cognitive and social strategies used to resolve conflicts.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd majors and CHYS minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd majors, GHUM , SOSC students and CHYS minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 7.0 overall credits.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 2P12, CHYS 2P10 or permission of the instructor.

Human Evolutionary Psychology

Human psychological characteristics in terms of function and evolution. General principles of evolutionary psychology, individual differences, group differences, adaptations to the natural environment, kin relationships, co-operation and conflict, sexuality and mating, and social organization. Critical evaluation of evidence that a given psychological characteristic may be an adaptation.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in the registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 one of PSYC 2P25, 2P30, 3P24 ( 2P24 ) or permission of the instructor.

Scientific examination of human and nonhuman motivation and emotion from evolutionary, physiological, developmental and social perspectives. Topics include hunger, thirst, reproduction, sleep, aggression, stress, arousal, love, drug addiction, curiosity and creativity.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3V88 .

Applications of computers to management and analysis of data, including data entry, statistical procedures and interpretation of output, using SPSS .

Lectures/lab, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors with a minimum 77 percent major average, a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: Neuroscience majors with a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum of 8.0 overall credits may register. Contact the Department.

Psychological theories of perception, cognition, narrative, and emotion through the lens of contemporary and classic films.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: may be offered on-site or online

Introduction to comparative psychology, emphasizing the similarity and differences of behaviour patterns across several species (including humans).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Food and Eating

Psychological, biological and social factors influencing food/beverage consumption in humans, including theoretical and applied aspects. Topics include physiological control of food intake biological, orosensory, social and cultural factors influencing food selection the effects of food on behaviour eating disorders and obesity and weight control.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), OEVI, NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, OEVI majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Topics, readings and/or research chosen in consultation with a faculty member who is willing to supervise the student.

Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90 and permission of the Department.

Empirical Directed Studies

Empirical research project chosen in consultation with a faculty member who is willing to supervise the student.

Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90 and permission of the Department.

Survey of the means by which humans learn, and the role of attention, perception, cognition and memory in learning. Individual, social and cultural factors that influence the acquisition of knowledge and development of skills in a variety of fields including art, science, sports and music. Strategies to promote durable learning and the challenge of transferring learning across contexts.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in Registration guide.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 2P45 .

Overview of the field of forensic psychology including psychopathy, risk assessment, criminal profiling, deception, eyewitness identification and jury decision-making.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined) majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Introduction to Human Neuropsychology

Brain function and behaviour through basic research on neuropsychological and neurocognitive function through clinical syndromes and cases. Topics include neural basis of perception, memory, language, motor control, emotion and executive functions. Recovery and advances in assessment, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of such functional deficits.

Lectures, seminar, 4 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 1.0 PSYC credit above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 PSYC 2P35, 2P36 or permission of the instructor.

Theory and research pertaining to cognitive development. Topics include the development of perception, language, memory, problem solving, reading and social cognition.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR, SPLS majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: students may not concurrently register in CHYS 3P65.

Completion of this course will replace previously assigned grade and credit in CHYS 3P65.

Child Language Acquisition: Early Stages

Theories, research and methods in early language development. Linguistic stages in the development of child language at the level of grammar and meaning (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), APLI (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior), HEAR , NEUR, SPLS (single or combined), SLHS (single or combined) majors, PSYC, APLI, CHYS minors, HESC , SLSC , CSHS and TESC Certificate students until date specified in Registration guide.

Note: LING 1P94 may be taken concurrently. LING 1P94 and 1P95( 1F94 ) recommended.

Introduction to Qualitative Research in Psychology

Qualitative research underpinnings (e.g. philosophical foundations and ethical issues), methodologies (e.g. interviews, focus groups, community-based research), and key analytical approaches (e.g. thematic analysis).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

How the human mind/brain processes, responds to and produces music. Topics include perception, memory, emotions, performance, and the developmental and social psychology of music.

Lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: permission of the instructor.

Neural basis of human language, emphasizing contemporary methods in cognitive neuroscience. Topics include methodology (e.g., behavioural and neuroimaging), biological and developmental bases of language, foundations of language, and word and sentence comprehension.

Lectures/lab, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and 1.0 PSYC credit above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 one of PSYC 2P20, 2P35, 2P36, 2P49 or permission of instructor.

Bases of Neuropsychopharmacology

Mechanisms of drug action and classification of psychoactive agents. Elements of pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination) and a review of the major groups of psychoactive agents including hypnotics, analgesics, anxiolytics, antidepressants, psychostimulants and neuroleptics, emphasizing mechanisms and consequences of drug action on selected neurotransmitter systems (dopaminergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic, serotonergic).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Functions, mechanisms, rhythms, physiology and psychology of sleep contrasted with counterparts during wakefulness. Current issues in sleep research and sleep disorders medicine.

Lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Basic principles of the kinetics of drugs and drug action, drug effects and drug interactions. Psychology of addictive behaviour. Effects of psychoactive drugs on behaviour and experience. Focus on recreational drugs and psychiatric medications.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, PHTH majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Children and Youth in the Digital Age

Theoretical, political, practical, legal and developmental perspectives on the use and impact of digital media and current technologies. Topics may include social networking, cyber-bullying, communication patterns, gamification and media literacy.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior) majors and CHYS minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior) majors, GHUM , SOSC students and CHYS minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 7.0 overall credits or permission of the Department.

Note: may be offered on-site, online or blended.

Modern theories and misconceptions about the effects of stress on psychology and health. Diverse material ranges from workplace theories of stress to the effect of stress on our immune system. Coping strategies, methods of stress appraisal and behavioural effects are also studied and physiological systems involved with the mammalian stress response.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors, GHUM , SOSC students and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide.

Social competence, aggression, friendship and other topics in social development from a variety of developmental perspectives. Methodological and intervention issues relevant to the study of social development.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: students may not concurrently register in CHYS 3P24. May be offered on-site or online.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in CHYS 3P24 and 3P77 .

Political Psychology and Ideology

Topics include person versus situation factors, ideological thinking, political values, political polarization, politicization of science, voting behaviour, and media influences.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Social Psychology of Technology

Social psychological implications of artificial intelligence, social media, human-robot interactions, and spread of misinformation online, benefits of technology for conducting research, and interpersonal consequences of technology-based communication and interactions.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Interpersonal Behaviour

Social psychology of interpersonal attraction and relationships, as studied through experimental, correlational and longitudinal designs. Reinforcement, exchange, attributional, equity and balance models. Levels of relationships. Aspects of the maintenance and dissolution of relationships and of interpersonal psychopathology.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), BCMN , COMM, MCMN majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Emotional, physiological and social components of psychological trauma including diagnostic concerns and treatments.

Lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Integrative approach to basic neuroscience, focusing on behavioural analysis in animal models, insights into brain and behaviour relationships provided by the traditional and the latest techniques (e.g., stereotaxic surgery, DREADDs, viral vectors and optogenetics transgenic organisms).

Lectures, 2 hours per week lab, 3 hrs alternating weeks.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors until the date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC (NEUR) 3F81 , 3P81 and 3P82 .

Introduction to the field of Environmental Psychology. Theoretical and applied aspects of the discipline, with an emphasis on understanding the human response to today’s most pressing environmental challenges. Topics may include history and theory of environmental psychology, psychological and social barriers to change, risk perception, change strategies for pro-environmental behaviour, sustainability education and communication, and research methods.

Lecture, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Second Language Acquisition and Learning

Theories of subsequent-language learning. Topics include psychological aspects of language learning (behaviourism, cognitivism, humanism), language and culture, contrastive analysis, error analysis, and interlanguage.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

The Psychology of Screens (Television and Beyond)

Cognitive responses to mediated communication including television and new/emerging information and communication technologies. Focus on cognitive effects, theories and research.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or permission of the instructor.

Prerequisite(s): one of PSYC 1F90, COMM 1F90, IASC 1F01, IASC 1P04 and 1P05 or permission of the instructor.

Note: completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC (COMM/PCUL) 3P95 and COMM 3Q20 .

Special Topics in Psychology

Structure and content of course varies.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Independent Empirical Research

Empirical research carried out with a faculty member who is willing to supervise the student.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors with a minimum of 13.5 overall credits and permission of the Department.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 2F23 PSYC 3F40 ( 3P41 and 3P42 ) or 3P30.

Note: this course is not a substitute for PSYC 4F91 nor can it be counted toward an Honours degree in Psychology. Students may not concurrently register in PSYC 4F91.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 4F91.

Empirical Research Thesis

Research project carried out with a faculty supervisor whose permission must be obtained prior to registration.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum 80 percent major average and permission of the Department.

Note: students may not concurrently register in PSYC 4F05.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 4F05, 4P07 and 4P08.

Psychology Students' Transition to Work

Use of the e-portfolio process to develop students' metacognitive awareness and their understanding of key concepts associated with transitions from university to the workplace.

Lectures, 1.5 hours per week online activities, 1.5 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum of 13.5 credits and 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90. Not open to combined majors and minors.

Completion of this course will replace previously assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 4F91.

Data Science for Academic and Applied Research

Introduction to data management, analysis and visualization using relevant computer software. Provides hands-on experience analyzing interesting psychological questions.

Lab, 2 hours per week online activities 1 hour per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single) majors with a 70 percent major average, a minimum of 13.5 overall credits and 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 4F91.

Advanced Directed Studies I

Topic, readings and/or research chosen in consultation with a faculty member who is willing to supervise the student.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors with a minimum of 13.5 overall credits and permission of the Department.

Empirical Advanced Directed Studies

Empirical research project chosen in consultation with a faculty member who is willing to supervise the student.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors with a minimum of 13.5 overall credits and permission of the Department.

Social psychology of interpersonal relationships, especially romantic relationships and other close relationships (e.g., friendship). Psychological processes underlying the development, maintenance, disruption or end of personal relationships. Current social psychological theories of close relationships.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combine) majors and minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.5 credits and 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Students will not receive earned credit in PSYC 4P15 if PSYC 3P80 has been successfully completed.

Psychological principles and research relevant to organizations and industry. Topics include hiring, training, work performance,leadership, and team dynamics.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combine) majors and minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. Students musthave a minimum of 13.5 credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Applied Cognitive Psychology

How basic principles of memory, attention, recognition and decision making influence our behaviour in everyday and forensic contexts. Topics may include brain training, multitasking, person perception, consumer psychology and eyewitness memory.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Advanced Seminar in Human Memory

Historic and current ideas about memory and the implication these have for our approach to memory in research, everyday function, medical and legal contexts as revealed through such topics as recollections, tip of the tongue, hypnosis and memory, eyewitness testimony and various memory disorders (psychogenic amnesia, childhood amnesia).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors with a minimum of 13.5 overall credits.

Psychological Measurement and Personality Research

Principles of psychological measurement, psychometric theory and test construction. Personality structure and the causes and functions of personality variation. Individual differences in the area of personality and associated domains, including cognitive abilities, interests, attitudes, religiosity, and sexuality.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Children's Memory Development

Memory development from infancy to childhood. Topics include working memory, autobiographical memory, false memory, memory for events, prospective memory, spatial memory, metacognition, and implicit memory.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Selected topics related to atypical child and adolescent development. Topics may include the study of intellectual disability, autism, ADHD , learning disorders, antisocial behaviours, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, substance abuse, personality disorders, and schizophrenia. Emphasis on understanding disorders at multiple levels of analysis (biological, cognitive, social) and within various ecological contexts (individual, peer, family, community, culture).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 PSYC 2P12, CHYS 2P10 or permission of the instructor.

Note: students must be available to participate in the Special Needs Activity Program ( SNAP ) at Brock University on Thursday mornings.

Examination of how we perceive and form impressions of other people, including the perception of facial displays of emotion, perception of facial identity and social judgements. Topics include the development of person perception, underlying neural mechanisms and implications for daily life.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combine) majors and minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.5 credits and 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Note: may be offered on-site or online.

Psychology of Children and the Law

Examination of the role of child victims/witnesses in the justice system. Topics include eyewitness memory, false confessions, deception detection, and the culpability of the child.

Lectures, Seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in the Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.5 credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Focus on positive experiences, characteristics, and institutions. Main themes include positive psychology as a source of information about well-being and optimal human functioning, central role of psychological science in the study of positive psychology, positive psychology as a lens through which to view all psychological inquiry.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in Registration guide. Students must have 13.5 credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychobiology of Human Sexuality

Advanced topics in human sexuality focusing on current research and a biopsychological perspective.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.5 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 PSYC 3P34 or HLSC 2P50 or permission of the instructor.

Development During Infancy

Human development from conception to 3 years. Topics may include brain, perceptual, cognitive, social, emotional development and animal models. The impact of early experience on later development.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and SPLS majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PSYC 3P35 .

Psychology of Social Justice

Basic research and theories addressing how people think about and respond to justice and injustice as subjective concepts. Topics include the nature of people's motivation for justice, how justice is defined and the influence of justice concerns on human behaviour.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors with a minimum 13.5 overall credits.

Historical and current beliefs about the nature of human emotions. Topics may include the definition and measurement of emotions, connections between emotional experience, emotion physiology, and emotion regulation across positive and negative affect, the relationship between emotion and other domains of psychology, developmental changes in emotion across adulthood, and/or emotion-related psychopathology (depression, autism).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR majors and PSYC minors until the date specified in Registration guide. Students must have 13.5 credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychosocial Problems in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

Theory and research on internalizing and externalizing problem behaviours in adolescence and emerging adulthood, as well as the factors that enhance resilience and competence.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum 13.5 credits until the date specified in the Registration guide.

Neural Mechanisms, Hormones and Behaviour

Relations among the hormones of the endocrine system, the nervous system and behaviour the involvement of hormones in sexual behaviour, the mechanisms of stress and cognition relevant research methodologies.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Maturation and Development

Influences of brain maturation on psychological development and vice versa, and the implications for behaviour.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined),CHYS (single or combined), CHYS BA (Honours)/BEd (Primary/Junior) and NEUR majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

Early-life environmental contributions to later-life health, including maternal/fetal adverse exposures and nutrition, infection, socioeconomic status, and early-life adversity. Research exploring biological mechanisms involved in social determinants of health.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Neuroplasticity and Behaviour in Adulthood and Aging

Examination of the link between adult brain plasticity (especially neurogenesis) and animal vertebrate behaviour (i.e. learning, memory, social behaviour, stress, and anxiety).

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) and NEUR majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Human-Animal Relations

Topics include cognitive rationalizations, dehumanization, the “meat paradox”, speciesism, and human-animal relations affecting climate change and zoonotic diseases, affection and bonding with animals.

Lecture, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors and NEUR majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90

Psychology of Bilingualism

Methodology (e.g., behavioural and neuroimaging), second language acquisition (in children and adults), social psychological aspects of bilingualism and cognitive consequences of bilingualism.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), NEUR, SPLS majors and PSYC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 credits and 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 1F90 or permission of the instructor.

Concepts related to acquisition and analysis of bioelectrical signals recorded from the brain, pupillary system, skeletomotor system, cardiovascular system, electrodermal system and respiratory system. Applications to health and human factors include arousal, attention, emotion, stress, immunology, lie detection and brain injury.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined), HEAR , NEUR majors and PSYC minors until the date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits or 3.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Professional Topics in Psychology

Topics may include privacy legislation, confidentiality, research ethics, post-degree training and professional programs, and other issues that individuals in psychology-related professions may face.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until the date specified in Registration guide. Students must have 13.5 credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

Theory and research on the basic processes involved in prejudice and discrimination. Topics include stereotyping, emotions, competition, contemporary prejudice, implicit biases, individual differences, and prejudice reduction.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors who hold a minimum of 13.5 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Psychology of Violent Predators

Multi-disciplinary approach in an effort to understand the psychology of criminals who engage in predatory violence, including serial killers, mass murderers, child molesters, and rapists. Theories, concepts and research from the fields of psychology, sociology, criminology and criminal justice that social scientists employ to understand and respond to violent criminals.

Lectures, online activities, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors who hold a minimum of 13.0 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Introduction to the Profession of Clinical Psychology

Review of ethical issues, approaches to assessment, research on the efficacy of psychotherapy and a selective review of evidence-based approaches for treating specific disorders.

Lectures, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single and combined) majors and minors who hold a minimum of 13.5 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Introduction to Counselling and Psychotherapy

Contemporary major theories of counselling and psychotherapy, including client/person-centered counselling, cognitive-behaviour therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and post-modern approaches.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors who hold a minimum of 13.5 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

Historical development of the multiple orientations within psychology. Philosophical and scientific influences on the field of psychology and their relevance to new developments in psychology.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum 70 percent major average and permission of the Department.

Note: students not completing a thesis in the same year or students in combined programs completing a thesis in another discipline should contact the Department.

Discussion of Undergraduate thesis research and preparation, including examination of various topics in Psychology.

Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum 80 percent major average and permission of the Department.

Scientific literature relevant to the topic of the empirical thesis.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors with a minimum 80 percent major average and permission of the Department.

Special Topics in Psychology

Structure and content of course varies.

Restriction: open to PSYC (single or combined) majors and minors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have a minimum of 13.5 overall credits or 5.0 PSYC credits above PSYC 1F90.

First co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Second co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Third co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Optional co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Optional co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Co-op Professional Preparation

Provides students with the tools, resources and skills to maximize co-op employment and professional development opportunities.

Lectures, presentation, site visits, 1.5 hours per week.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Co-op Reflective Learning and Integration I

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

Co-op Reflective and Integration II

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

Co-op Reflective Learning and Integration III

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

Co-op Reflective Learning and Integration IV

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

Co-op Reflective Learning and Integration V

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academics studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PSYC Co-op students.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.


Techniques for personal accomplishments are:

  1. Percent completed-ness - this is where an individual needs to complete baseline requirements to reach 100% - these accomplishments can be fixed or gated for specific milestones (rankings) to show one's awesomeness to the community, or just a simple set like LinkedIn's "is my profile complete?" metric.
  2. Activity Counts - any number of actions performed can be tracked and assigned values, the more these actions occur, the greater the value. Some level of validation to mitigate "gaming the system" would be a good idea.

The name, "Directive Communication", refers to the idea that communication is constant, and, is constantly causing and effecting the individuals and groups involved whether it is verbal or non-verbal. Therefore, understanding the psychological element and derived models of how these cause and effects come about, allows a person to consciously "Direct" his communication to achieve a purposeful and desired effect in group behavior. [2] [5]

The discipline was founded in 2001 when Carmazzi found himself working in a dysfunctional organisation and performing at levels far below his own aptitude. While he was underperforming at work, he found himself to be innovative and perform well with his friends on various projects. He also found that different groups of friends brought out different facets of his attitude and personality, some being positive and others not. His findings were later published as he discovered that an individual’s performance was directly related to the unique group environment he or she was in. The initial work showed some people performed extremely well in one environment and, even with the same requirements, performed poorly in others. The group dynamics studies led the development of the 6 primary models that Carmazzi identified as foundations to understand how different mixes of individuals affect performance differently. The models supported individuals within a group to influence the dynamics and performance of that group. [1] [2] [3]

One of the studies identified how a high achiever was put into a high performing team and the entire team began to perform poorly. In the same study, certain average achievers were combined and created high performing teams. [6] In 2007, the methodology was accredited by the American Institute of Business Psychology. [1] [2] [3]

DC Psychology continues to be an expanding discipline with many contributors to the methodology including Lily C. Lau, Dr Raymond Phoon, Dr Leslie Choudhury, Waheed Albalushi, Col. Aalok Soodm Prachla Malhotra and Dr Marine Milad. [7]

Directive Communication Psychology is the science of group dynamics. it identifies How and Why people act and react in groups, and the small modifications in behavior that leads to influencing those groups. Directive Communication became the science of organisational peak performance and was commercially applied to developing leadership, improving corporate culture, Team Development, workforce enhancement and group behavior modification, and in high yield training and development. In a non-commercial environment, Directive Communication serves to cultivate better personal relationships, raising children, and becoming more fulfilled and responsible citizens. [2]

There are 307 Directive Communication certified trainers in 16 different countries including Iran, Pakistan, France, Malaysia, Singapore, Hungary, Bahrain, Qatar, China, UAE and Indonesia among others. [8]

  • Circle of Tolerance – the level of negative stimulus a person can deal with intelligently before reacting.
  • Colored Brain - How an individual genetically interprets information and surroundings, gets clarity on solutions, ideas and processes, and, sequencesaction from or through that clarity. [9]
  • Emotional Drive – a set of 8 primary motivators that determine why people take or do not take action and why they react to people and environments in ways that either support or do not support their objectives. [10]
  • Postures – a yoga based, mind/body connection model that supports the immediate and purposeful creation of mood in an individual to affect environment.
  • Directive Questions – a questioning model to take the place of direct instruction in order to connect motivation, develop competence and increase trust and respect within teams.
  • Core Identity – a process by which individuals find and nurture their own models of leadership, personal effectiveness and objective supporting attitudes by harnessing facets of who they are at their best in different environments. The model is said to enhance sustainability of new behaviors because in essence, they are not new and simply refined and redirected existing behaviors.

The directive communication organizational change model is a bottom up process that was originally derived from the US Special forces and CIA force multiplication and revolution models. The objective of the model is to develop a more effective and engaged organizational culture through uniting the people within the organization to create an environment that supports their personal success and value through the organization, and therefore increasing engagement. It assumes the following points:

  • It is easier for the masses to get buy-in from a small group of leaders than it is for a small group of leaders to get buy-in from the masses.
  • Groups with a single greater purpose unite to achieve it.
  • There are key influencers within an organization that people listen to and respect even if they do not have official titles. These people can influence their peers through trust that may be missing from the employee/management relationship.
  • People, regardless of culture, age, position or education have very similar ideas about what is an ideal work environment. (this is based on an Arthur Carmazzi study conducted over 51 different countries and over 80,000 people determining the fundamental 5 consistent elements that subjects have defined as required for the ideal work environment).
  • If there is a common enemy, groups that normally do not associate, will come together to fight against it.
  • Ownership of the culture supports perpetuation of it. Employees may not own the company but they can own the culture. A culture initiative must separate the 2 for sustainability.
  • In the instant information and gratification society we live in, if people do not see fast results that are supporting their success, they will lose interest and the initiative will get lost in the shuffle of being busy. A successful culture change initiative must show visible results in the first week of implementation to maintain ignite the motivation to continue.
  • If given the opportunity, people want to solve the problems that are preventing them from becoming more successful at work.
  • A common language that supports emotional communication without conflict, supports the creation of an ideal working environment
  • The directive communication psychology and it intrinsic language supports the unification of people to achieve the greater common purpose of creating an ideal work environment and show visible results in a short time.

The culture change process has 4 criteria for it to work and be sustainable.

  • Senior management must be involved.
  • There will be a 2-week period where operations will be disrupted.
  • There may be negative influencers that must be removed from the organization or interaction with the majority of the staff.
  • The initiative only works with up to 1200 people at one time.

Directive communication psychology has the following assumptions: [5] [11] [12] [13]

  • Individuals have potential to be inspired or uninspired at any given time, depending on their environment and their focus
  • Reactions to environment take place in the reptilian brain, and are a product of violated assumptions about the way that things should be
  • The reptilian brain does not reason and therefore reactions are “non-intelligent” actions
  • By understanding the psychology of how and why people act and react to each other in groups, an individual can change one consistent behavior in an environment, and affect the entire environment.
  • The subconscious actions based on assumptions about the way that people should be, manifest the way others treat them
  • Because of these subconscious actions, Everyone is personally responsible for the way others treat them and the creation of their own environment
  • “Personality” cannot be defined or categorized, it can only be “interpreted” by understanding the 3 separate components of character: the Mental, the Emotional, and the Physical
  • Each person Mentally processes the world around them based on a genetic brain processing, and While we cannot change our genetic processors, we learn “software” to compensate
  • Our Emotional Motivations are driven by eight primary emotional drivers, these are products of our environment and are subject to change over time
  • We have habitual physical postures that affect our focus, attitudes and the way our environment interacts with us.

Directive communication psychology training focuses with the idea that learning retention and implementation could be improved with what founder, Arthur Carmazzi, calls “stacked learning”. Using sets of proprietary training tools developed by Carmazzi, a directive communication-based training game incorporates real world context into a specific learning point, the next learning point and game reinforces the earlier one and so on. Each game or exercise for new learning is “stacked” on, and emphasizes each previous learning.

This has led to further development of reflective tools such as the Colored Brain Communication Cards: a series of 54 images that, when put in context of a question, elicit subconscious values, lost knowledge, and expanded clarity about the question.

The methodology and tools expand from contributions from its certified trainers and practitioners such as The Choudhury Mind Maze Developed by Dr. Leslie Choudhury that emphasizes 5 out of the 6 Directive Communication models.

The Directive Communication assessments are also related to the various games.

  • The Colored Brain Communication Inventory (CBCI) determines the Colored Brain or specific genetic process for getting clarity of a user.
  • The Human Drive Mirrored Assessment (HDMA) identifies the “perception gaps” of how an individual sees themselves compared to how they are seen be subordinates, peers and superiors
  • The Corporate Culture Evolution Evaluation (CCEE) determining at which of the five levels of organizational culture (according to Carmazzi’s Culture Model) an organization’s culture is at.

Assessments are also subject to expansion from the Directive Communication community with contributions to accuracy and further application. One contribution by Lily C. Lau expanded the practicality of the Colored Brain assessment by adding depth to the application of “the second color” with her own research in 2013.

  • Leadership
  • Team effectiveness
  • Engagement
  • Organizational culture enhancement and change
  • Sales and marketing
  • Customer service
  • Training and learning effectiveness

There are two maincertifications, “trainer” and “practitioner”. Additional certifications such as culture change, gamification, and master trainer, must have a minimum trainer certification before they can be attained. As an accredited methodology from the American Institute of Business Psychology, the Directive Communication psychology trainer certification is subject to two examinations. A practical examination where no more than 3 out of 50 questions can be missed for a passing grade, and a practical for the psychology based delivery methods related to training and increasing retention and implementation of concepts. Trainer certifications can only be delivered and certified by official Directive Communication Certified Master Trainers.

The practitioner certification is available live by certified Directive Communication master trainers and in online format. It is a prerequisite for the trainer certification. The practitioner certification requires only passing a written test with 20 questions per module and cannot miss more than 2 out of 20. The test is taken online.


Contents

During the classical period of economics, microeconomics was closely linked to psychology. For example, Adam Smith wrote The Theory of Moral Sentiments, which proposed psychological explanations of individual behavior, including concerns about fairness and justice. [5] Jeremy Bentham wrote extensively on the psychological underpinnings of utility. Then, during the development of neo-classical economics, economists sought to reshape the discipline as a natural science, deducing behavior from assumptions about the nature of economic agents. They developed the concept of homo economicus, whose behavior was fundamentally rational. Neo-classical economists did incorporate psychological explanations: this was true of Francis Edgeworth, Vilfredo Pareto and Irving Fisher. Economic psychology emerged in the 20th century in the works of Gabriel Tarde, [6] George Katona, [7] and Laszlo Garai. [8] Expected utility and discounted utility models began to gain acceptance, generating testable hypotheses about decision-making given uncertainty and intertemporal consumption, respectively. Observed and repeatable anomalies eventually challenged those hypotheses, and further steps were taken by Maurice Allais, for example, in setting out the Allais paradox, a decision problem he first presented in 1953 that contradicts the expected utility hypothesis.

In the 1960s cognitive psychology began to shed more light on the brain as an information processing device (in contrast to behaviorist models). Psychologists in this field, such as Ward Edwards, [9] Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman began to compare their cognitive models of decision-making under risk and uncertainty to economic models of rational behavior.

Mathematical psychology reflects a longstanding interest in preference transitivity and the measurement of utility. [10]

Nobel laureates Edit

In 2002, psychologist Daniel Kahneman and economist Vernon L. Smith were awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. Kahneman was awarded the prize "for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty", while Smith was awarded the prize "for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms." [11] In 2013, economist Robert J. Shiller received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for his empirical analysis of asset prices" (within the field of behavioral finance). [12] In 2017, economist Richard Thaler was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for "his contributions to behavioral economics and his pioneering work in establishing that people are predictably irrational in ways that defy economic theory." [13] [14] Kahneman and Tversky's in the late 1960s, published about 200 works, most of which relate to psychological concepts with implications for behavioral finance. A total of six Nobel prizes have been awarded for behavioral research. [15] [ citation needed ]

Bounded rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the tractability of the decision problem, their cognitive limitations and the time available. Decision-makers in this view act as satisficers, seeking a satisfactory solution rather than an optimal one.

Herbert A. Simon proposed bounded rationality as an alternative basis for the mathematical modeling of decision-making. It complements "rationality as optimization", which views decision-making as a fully rational process of finding an optimal choice given the information available. [16] Simon used the analogy of a pair of scissors, where one blade represents human cognitive limitations and the other the "structures of the environment", illustrating how minds compensate for limited resources by exploiting known structural regularity in the environment. [16] Bounded rationality implicates the idea that humans take shortcuts that may lead to suboptimal decision-making. Behavioral economists engage in mapping the decision shortcuts that agents use in order to help increase the effectiveness of human decision-making. One treatment of this idea comes from Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler's Nudge. [17] [18] Sunstein and Thaler recommend that choice architectures are modified in light of human agents' bounded rationality. A widely cited proposal from Sunstein and Thaler urges that healthier food be placed at sight level in order to increase the likelihood that a person will opt for that choice instead of less healthy option. Some critics of Nudge have lodged attacks that modifying choice architectures will lead to people becoming worse decision-makers. [19] [20]

In 1979, Kahneman and Tversky published Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk, that used cognitive psychology to explain various divergences of economic decision making from neo-classical theory. [21] Prospect theory has two stages: an editing stage and an evaluation stage. In the editing stage, risky situations are simplified using various heuristics. In the evaluation phase, risky alternatives are evaluated using various psychological principles that include:

    : When evaluating outcomes, the decision maker considers a "reference level." Outcomes are then compared to the reference point and classified as "gains" if greater than the reference point and "losses" if less than the reference point. : Losses are avoided more than equivalent gains are sought. In their 1992 paper, Kahneman and Tversky found the median coefficient of loss aversion to be about 2.25, i.e., losses hurt about 2.25 times more than equivalent gains reward. [22][23]
  • Non-linear probability weighting: Decision makers overweigh small probabilities and underweigh large probabilities—this gives rise to the inverse-S shaped "probability weighting function."
  • Diminishing sensitivity to gains and losses: As the size of the gains and losses relative to the reference point increase in absolute value, the marginal effect on the decision maker's utility or satisfaction falls.

Prospect theory is able to explain everything that the two main existing decision theories—expected utility theory and rank dependent utility theory—can explain. Further, prospect theory has been used to explain phenomena that existing decision theories have great difficulty in explaining. These include backward bending labor supply curves, asymmetric price elasticities, tax evasion and co-movement of stock prices and consumption.

In 1992, in the Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Kahneman and Tversky gave a revised account of prospect theory that they called cumulative prospect theory. [22] The new theory eliminated the editing phase in prospect theory and focused just on the evaluation phase. Its main feature was that it allowed for non-linear probability weighting in a cumulative manner, which was originally suggested in John Quiggin's rank-dependent utility theory. Psychological traits such as overconfidence, projection bias, and the effects of limited attention are now part of the theory. Other developments include a conference at the University of Chicago, [24] a special behavioral economics edition of the Quarterly Journal of Economics ("In Memory of Amos Tversky"), and Kahneman's 2002 Nobel Prize for having "integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty." [25]

Nudge is a concept in behavioral science, political theory and economics which proposes positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions as ways to influence the behavior and decision making of groups or individuals. Nudging contrasts with other ways to achieve compliance, such as education, legislation or enforcement. The concept has influenced British and American politicians. Several nudge units exist around the world at the national level (UK, Germany, Japan and others) as well as at the international level (OECD, World Bank, UN).

The first formulation of the term and associated principles was developed in cybernetics by James Wilk before 1995 and described by Brunel University academic D. J. Stewart as "the art of the nudge" (sometimes referred to as micronudges [26] ). It also drew on methodological influences from clinical psychotherapy tracing back to Gregory Bateson, including contributions from Milton Erickson, Watzlawick, Weakland and Fisch, and Bill O'Hanlon. [27] In this variant, the nudge is a microtargetted design geared towards a specific group of people, irrespective of the scale of intended intervention.

In 2008, Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein's book Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness brought nudge theory to prominence. It also gained a following among US and UK politicians, in the private sector and in public health. [28] The authors refer to influencing behavior without coercion as libertarian paternalism and the influencers as choice architects. [29] Thaler and Sunstein defined their concept as:

A nudge, as we will use the term, is any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people's behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives. To count as a mere nudge, the intervention must be easy and cheap to avoid. Nudges are not mandates. Putting fruit at eye level counts as a nudge. Banning junk food does not.

In this form, drawing on behavioral economics, the nudge is more generally applied to influence behavior.

One of the most frequently cited examples of a nudge is the etching of the image of a housefly into the men's room urinals at Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport, which is intended to "improve the aim." [17]

Nudging techniques aim to capitalise on the judgemental heuristics of people. In other words, a nudge alters the environment so that when heuristic, or System 1, decision-making is used, the resulting choice will be the most positive or desired outcome. [30] An example of such a nudge is switching the placement of junk food in a store, so that fruit and other healthy options are located next to the cash register, while junk food is relocated to another part of the store. [31]

In 2008, the United States appointed Sunstein, who helped develop the theory, as administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs. [29] [32] [33]

Notable applications of nudge theory include the formation of the British Behavioural Insights Team in 2010. It is often called the "Nudge Unit", at the British Cabinet Office, headed by David Halpern. [34] In addition, the Penn Medicine Nudge Unit is the world's first behavioral design team embedded within a health system.

Both Prime Minister David Cameron and President Barack Obama sought to employ nudge theory to advance domestic policy goals during their terms. [35]

In Australia, the government of New South Wales established a Behavioural Insights community of practice. [36]

Nudge theory has also been applied to business management and corporate culture, such as in relation to health, safety and environment (HSE) and human resources. Regarding its application to HSE, one of the primary goals of nudge is to achieve a "zero accident culture." [37]

Leading Silicon Valley companies are forerunners in applying nudge theory in a corporate setting. These companies are using nudges in various forms to increase the productivity and happiness of employees. Recently, further companies are gaining interest in using what is called "nudge management" to improve the productivity of their white-collar workers. [38]

Behavioral insights and nudges are currently used in many countries around the world. [39]

Criticisms Edit

Tammy Boyce, from public health foundation The King's Fund, has said: "We need to move away from short-term, politically motivated initiatives such as the 'nudging people' idea, which is not based on any good evidence and doesn't help people make long-term behaviour changes." [40]

Cass Sunstein has responded to critiques at length in his The Ethics of Influence [41] making the case in favor of nudging against charges that nudges diminish autonomy, [42] threaten dignity, violate liberties, or reduce welfare. Ethicists have debated this rigorously. [43] These charges have been made by various participants in the debate from Bovens [44] to Goodwin. [45] Wilkinson for example charges nudges for being manipulative, while others such as Yeung question their scientific credibility. [46]

Some, such as Hausman & Welch [47] have inquired whether nudging should be permissible on grounds of (distributive [ clarification needed ] ) justice Lepenies & Malecka [48] have questioned whether nudges are compatible with the rule of law. Similarly, legal scholars have discussed the role of nudges and the law. [49] [50]

Behavioral economists such as Bob Sugden have pointed out that the underlying normative benchmark of nudging is still homo economicus, despite the proponents' claim to the contrary. [51]

It has been remarked that nudging is also a euphemism for psychological manipulation as practiced in social engineering. [52] [53]

There exists an anticipation and, simultaneously, implicit criticism of the nudge theory in works of Hungarian social psychologists who emphasize the active participation in the nudge of its target (Ferenc Merei [54] and Laszlo Garai [8] ).

Conventional economics assumes that all people are both rational and selfish. In practice, this is often not the case, which leads to the failure of traditional models. Behavioural economics studies the biases, tendencies and heuristics that affect the decisions that people make to improve, tweak or overhaul traditional economic theory. It aids in determining whether people make good or bad choices and whether they could be helped to make better choices. It can be applied both before and after a decision is made.

Search heuristics Edit

Before a decision is made, there needs to be a minimum of two options. Behavioural economics employs search heuristics to explain how a person may evaluate their options. Search heuristics is a school of thought that suggests that when making a choice, it is costly to gain information about options and that methods exist to maximise the utility that one might get from searching for information. While each heuristic is not wholistic in its explanation of the search process alone, a combination of these heuristics may be used in the decision making process. There are three primary search heuristics.

Satisficing is the idea that there is some minimum requirement from the search and once that has been met, stop searching. Following the satisficing heuristic a person may not necessarily acquire the most optimal product (i.e. the one that would grant them the most utility), but would find one that is "good enough". This heuristic may be problematic if the aspiration level is set at such a level that no products exist that could meet the requirements.

Directed cognition is a search heuristic in which a person treats each opportunity to research information as their last. Rather than a contingent plan that indicates what will be done based on the results of each search, directed cognition considers only if one more search should be conducted and what alternative should be researched.

Elimination by aspects

Whereas satisficing and directed cognition compare choices, elimination by aspects compares certain qualities. A person using the elimination by aspects heuristic first chooses the quality that they value most in what they are searching for and sets an aspiration level. This may be repeated to refine the search. i.e. identify the second most valued quality and set an aspiration level. Using this heuristic, options will be eliminated as they fail to meet the minimum requirements of the chosen qualities. [55]

Heuristics and cognitive effects Edit

Outside of searching, behavioural economists and psychologists have identified a number of other heuristics and other cognitive effects that affect people's decision making. Some of these include:

Mental accounting refers to the propensity to allocate resources for specific purposes. Mental accounting is a behavioral bias that causes one to separate money into different categories known as mental accounts either based on the source or the intention of the money. [56]

Anchoring describes when people have a mental reference point with which they compare results to. For example, a person who anticipates that the weather on a particular day would be raining, but finds that on the day it's actually clear blue skies, would gain more utility from the pleasant weather because they anticipated that it would be bad. [57]

This is a relatively simple bias that reflects the tendency of people to mimic what everyone else is doing and follow the general consensus. It represents the concept of "wisdom of the crowd". [58]

Stereotypes and anecdotes that act as mental filters are referred to in behavioural economics as Framing effects. People may be inclined to make different decisions depending on how choices are presented to them. [59]

Biases and fallacies Edit

While heuristics are tactics or mental shortcuts to aid in the decision making process, people are also affected by a number of biases and fallacies. Behavioural economics identifies a number of these biases that negatively affect decision making such as:

Present bias reflects the human tendency to want rewards sooner. It describes people who are more likely to forego a greater payoff in the future in favour of receiving a smaller benefit sooner. An example of this is a smoker who is trying to quit. Although they know that in the future they will suffer health consequences, the immediate gain from the nicotine hit is more favourable to a person affected by present bias. Present bias is commonly split into people who are aware of their present bias (sophisticated) and those who are not (naive). [60]

Also known as the Monte Carlo fallacy, the gambler's fallacy is the unmerited belief that because an event occurs more frequently in the past it is less likely to occur in the future (or vice versa), despite the probability remaining constant. For example, if a coin had been flipped three times and turned up heads every single time, a person influenced by the gambler's fallacy would predict tails simply because of the abnormal number of heads flipped in the past, even though of course the probability of a heads is still 50%. [61]

Narrative fallacy is almost the opposite of the Gambler's fallacy and is a theory states that one is more likely to predict a different event happening than what happened previously simply because it had already happened previously. For example, a person may be more likely to predict the result of a coin flip to be tails because the previous three flips were heads, even though the probability of the next flip is still 50/50. [62]

Loss aversion refers to the tendency to place greater weight on loss than disappointment. In other words, they're far more likely to try to assign a higher priority on avoiding losses than making investment gains. As a result, some investors might want a higher payout to compensate for losses. If the high payout isn't likely, they might try to avoid losses altogether even if the investment's risk is acceptable from a rational standpoint. [63]

When a person places greater expectation on a particular outcome simply because that outcome had just occurred, that person may be affected by recency bias. To return to the coin flipping example, given that the previous one or two flips were heads, a person affected by recency bias would continue to predict that heads would be flipped. [64]

Also referred to as hindsight bias, Confirmation bias reflects the tendency to favour information or results that support one's own beliefs or values. [65]

Familiarity bias simply describes the tendency of people to return to what they know and are comfortable with. Familiarity bias discourages affected people from exploring new options and may limit their ability to find an optimal solution. [66]

Status quo bias describes the tendency of people to keep things the way they are. It is a particular aversion to change in favor of remaining comfortable with what is known. [67]

Behavioral Finance is the study of the influence of psychology on the behavior of investors or financial analyst. It assumes that investors are not always rational, have limits to their self-control and are influenced by their own biases. [68] For example, behavioral law and economics scholars studying the growth of financial firms’ technological capabilities have attributed decision science to irrational consumer decisions. [69] : 1321 It also includes the subsequent effects on the markets. Behavioral Finance attempts to explain the reasoning patterns of investors and measures the influential power of these patterns on the investor's decision making. The central issue in behavioral finance is explaining why market participants make irrational systematic errors contrary to assumption of rational market participants. [1] Such errors affect prices and returns, creating market inefficiencies.

Traditional finance Edit

The accepted theories of finance are referred to as traditional finance. The foundation of traditional finance is associated with the modern portfolio theory (MPT) and the efficient-market hypothesis (EMH). Modern portfolio theory is a stock or portfolio's expected return, standard deviation, and its correlation with the other stocks or mutual funds held within the portfolio. With these three concepts, an efficient portfolio can be created for any group of stocks or bonds. An efficient portfolio is a group of stocks that has the maximum (highest) expected return given the amount of risk assumed, contains the lowest possible risk for a given expected return. The efficient-market hypothesis states that all information has already been reflected in a security's price or market value, and that the current price of the stock or bond always trades at its fair value. The proponents of the traditional theories believe that 'investors should just own the entire market rather than attempting to outperform the market'. Behavioral finance has emerged as an alternative to these theories of traditional finance and the behavioral aspects of psychology and sociology are integral catalysts within this field of study. [70]

Evolution Edit

The foundations of behavioral finance can be traced back over 150 years. Several original books written in the 1800s and early 1900s marked the beginning of the behavioral finance school. Originally published in 1841, MacKay's Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds presents a chronological timeline of the various panics and schemes throughout history. [71] This work shows how group behavior applies to the financial markets of today. Le Bon's important work, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind, discusses the role of "crowds" (also known as crowd psychology) and group behavior as they apply to the fields of behavioral finance, social psychology, sociology, and history. Selden's 1912 book Psychology of The Stock Market was one of the first to apply the field of psychology directly to the stock market. This classic discusses the emotional and psychological forces at work on investors and traders in the financial markets. These three works along with several others form the foundation of applying psychology and sociology to the field of finance. The foundation of behavioral finance is an area based on an interdisciplinary approach including scholars from the social sciences and business schools. From the liberal arts perspective, this includes the fields of psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics and behavioral economics. On the business administration side, this covers areas such as management, marketing, finance, technology and accounting.

Critics contend that behavioral finance is more a collection of anomalies than a true branch of finance and that these anomalies are either quickly priced out of the market or explained by appealing to market microstructure arguments. However, individual cognitive biases are distinct from social biases the former can be averaged out by the market, while the other can create positive feedback loops that drive the market further and further from a "fair price" equilibrium. It is observed that, the problem with the general area of behavioral finance is that it only serves as a complement to general economics. Similarly, for an anomaly to violate market efficiency, an investor must be able to trade against it and earn abnormal profits this is not the case for many anomalies. [72] A specific example of this criticism appears in some explanations of the equity premium puzzle. [73] It is argued that the cause is entry barriers (both practical and psychological) and that the equity premium should reduce as electronic resources open up the stock market to more traders. [74] In response, others contend that most personal investment funds are managed through superannuation funds, minimizing the effect of these putative entry barriers. [75] In addition, professional investors and fund managers seem to hold more bonds than one would expect given return differentials. [76]

Quantitative behavioral finance Edit

Quantitative behavioral finance uses mathematical and statistical methodology to understand behavioral biases.

Financial models Some financial models used in money management and asset valuation incorporate behavioral finance parameters. Examples:

  • Thaler's model of price reactions to information, with three phases (underreaction, adjustment, and overreaction), creating a price trend.
  • One characteristic of overreaction is that average returns following announcements of good news is lower than following bad news. In other words, overreaction occurs if the market reacts too strongly or for too long to news, thus requiring an adjustment in the opposite direction. As a result, outperforming assets in one period is likely to underperform in the following period. This also applies to customers' irrational purchasing habits. [77]
  • The stock image coefficient.

A handful of comparative psychologists have attempted to demonstrate quasi-economic reasoning in non-human animals. Early attempts along these lines focus on the behavior of rats and pigeons. These studies draw on the tenets of comparative psychology, where the main goal is to discover analogs to human behavior in experimentally-tractable non-human animals. They are also methodologically similar to the work of Ferster and Skinner. [78] Methodological similarities aside, early researchers in non-human economics deviate from behaviorism in their terminology. Although such studies are set up primarily in an operant conditioning chamber using food rewards for pecking/bar-pressing behavior, the researchers describe pecking and bar-pressing not in terms of reinforcement and stimulus-response relationships but instead in terms of work, demand, budget, and labor. Recent studies have adopted a slightly different approach, taking a more evolutionary perspective, comparing economic behavior of humans to a species of non-human primate, the capuchin monkey. [79]

Animal studies Edit

Many early studies of non-human economic reasoning were performed on rats and pigeons in an operant conditioning chamber. These studies looked at things like peck rate (in the case of the pigeon) and bar-pressing rate (in the case of the rat) given certain conditions of reward. Early researchers claim, for example, that response pattern (pecking/bar-pressing rate) is an appropriate analogy to human labor supply. [80] Researchers in this field advocate for the appropriateness of using animal economic behavior to understand the elementary components of human economic behavior. [81] In a paper by Battalio, Green, and Kagel, [80] they write,

Space considerations do not permit a detailed discussion of the reasons why economists should take seriously the investigation of economic theories using nonhuman subjects. [Studies of economic behavior in non-human animals] provide a laboratory for identifying, testing, and better understanding general laws of economic behavior. Use of this laboratory is predicated on the fact that behavior, as well as structure, vary continuously across species, and that principles of economic behavior would be unique among behavioral principles if they did not apply, with some variation, of course, to the behavior of nonhumans.

Labor supply Edit

The typical laboratory environment to study labor supply in pigeons is set up as follows. Pigeons are first deprived of food. Since the animals become hungry, food becomes highly desired. The pigeons are then placed in an operant conditioning chamber and through orienting and exploring the environment of the chamber they discover that by pecking a small disk located on one side of the chamber, food is delivered to them. In effect, pecking behavior becomes reinforced, as it is associated with food. Before long, the pigeon pecks at the disk (or stimulus) regularly.

In this circumstance, the pigeon is said to "work" for the food by pecking. The food, then, is thought of as the currency. The value of the currency can be adjusted in several ways, including the amount of food delivered, the rate of food delivery and the type of food delivered (some foods are more desirable than others).

Economic behavior similar to that observed in humans is discovered when the hungry pigeons stop working/work less when the reward is reduced. Researchers argue that this is similar to labor supply behavior in humans. That is, like humans (who, even in need, will only work so much for a given wage), the pigeons demonstrate decreases in pecking (work) when the reward (value) is reduced. [80]

Demand Edit

In human economics, a typical demand curve has negative slope. This means that as the price of a certain good increase, the amount that consumers are willing and able to purchase decreases. Researchers studying the demand curves of non-human animals, such as rats, also find downward slopes.

Researchers have studied demand in rats in a manner distinct from studying labor supply in pigeons. Specifically, in an operant conditioning chamber containing rats as experimental subjects, we require them to press a bar, instead of pecking a small disk, to receive a reward. The reward can be food (reward pellets), water, or a commodity drink such as cherry cola. Unlike in previous pigeon studies, where the work analog was pecking and the monetary analog was a reward, the work analog in this experiment is bar-pressing. Under these circumstances, the researchers claim that changing the number of bar presses required to obtain a commodity item is analogous to changing the price of a commodity item in human economics. [82]

In effect, results of demand studies in non-human animals show that, as the bar-pressing requirement (cost) increase, the number of times an animal presses the bar equal to or greater than the bar-pressing requirement (payment) decreases.

Intertemporal choice Edit

Behavioral economics has been applied to intertemporal choice, which is defined as making a decision and having the effects of such decision happening in a different time. Intertemporal choice behavior is largely inconsistent, as exemplified by George Ainslie's hyperbolic discounting—one of the prominently studied observations—and further developed by David Laibson, Ted O'Donoghue and Matthew Rabin. Hyperbolic discounting describes the tendency to discount outcomes in the near future more than outcomes in the far future. This pattern of discounting is dynamically inconsistent (or time-inconsistent), and therefore inconsistent with basic models of rational choice, since the rate of discount between time t and t+1 will be low at time t-1 when t is the near future, but high at time t when t is the present and time t+1 is the near future.

This pattern can also be explained through models of sub-additive discounting that distinguish the delay and interval of discounting: people are less patient (per-time-unit) over shorter intervals regardless of when they occur.

Behavioral game theory Edit

Behavioral game theory, invented by Colin Camerer, analyzes interactive strategic decisions and behavior using the methods of game theory, [83] experimental economics, and experimental psychology. Experiments include testing deviations from typical simplifications of economic theory such as the independence axiom [84] and neglect of altruism, [85] fairness, [86] and framing effects. [87] On the positive side, the method has been applied to interactive learning [88] and social preferences. [89] [90] [91] As a research program, the subject is a development of the last three decades. [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98]

Artificial intelligence Edit

Much of the decisions are more and more made either by human beings with the assistance of artificial intelligent machines or wholly made by these machines. Tshilidzi Marwala and Evan Hurwitz in their book, [99] studied the utility of behavioral economics in such situations and concluded that these intelligent machines reduce the impact of bounded rational decision making. In particular, they observed that these intelligent machines reduce the degree of information asymmetry in the market, improve decision making and thus making markets more rational.

The use of AI machines in the market in applications such as online trading and decision making has changed major economic theories. [99] Other theories where AI has had impact include in rational choice, rational expectations, game theory, Lewis turning point, portfolio optimization and counterfactual thinking.

Other areas of research Edit

Other branches of behavioral economics enrich the model of the utility function without implying inconsistency in preferences. Ernst Fehr, Armin Falk, and Rabin studied fairness, inequity aversion and reciprocal altruism, weakening the neoclassical assumption of perfect selfishness. This work is particularly applicable to wage setting. The work on "intrinsic motivation by Uri Gneezy and Aldo Rustichini and "identity" by George Akerlof and Rachel Kranton assumes that agents derive utility from adopting personal and social norms in addition to conditional expected utility. According to Aggarwal, in addition to behavioral deviations from rational equilibrium, markets are also likely to suffer from lagged responses, search costs, externalities of the commons, and other frictions making it difficult to disentangle behavioral effects in market behavior. [100]

"Conditional expected utility" is a form of reasoning where the individual has an illusion of control, and calculates the probabilities of external events and hence their utility as a function of their own action, even when they have no causal ability to affect those external events. [101] [102]

Behavioral economics caught on among the general public with the success of books such as Dan Ariely's Predictably Irrational. Practitioners of the discipline have studied quasi-public policy topics such as broadband mapping. [103] [104]

Applications for behavioral economics include the modeling of the consumer decision-making process for applications in artificial intelligence and machine learning. The Silicon Valley-based start-up Singularities is using the AGM postulates proposed by Alchourrón, Gärdenfors, and Makinson—the formalization of the concepts of beliefs and change for rational entities—in a symbolic logic to create a "machine learning and deduction engine that uses the latest data science and big data algorithms in order to generate the content and conditional rules (counterfactuals) that capture customer's behaviors and beliefs." [105]

The University of Pennsylvania's Center for Health Incentives & Behavioral Economics (CHIBE) looks at how behavioral economics can improve health outcomes. CHIBE researchers have found evidence that many behavioral economics principles (incentives, patient and clinician nudges, gamification, loss aversion, and more) can be helpful to encourage vaccine uptake, smoking cessation, medication adherence, and physical activity, for example. [106]

Applications of behavioral economics also exist in other disciplines, for example in the area of supply chain management. [107]

Natural experiments Edit

From a biological point of view, human behaviors are essentially the same during crises accompanied by stock market crashes and during bubble growth when share prices exceed historic highs. During those periods, most market participants see something new for themselves, and this inevitably induces a stress response in them with accompanying changes in their endocrine profiles and motivations. The result is quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior. This is one example where behavior affecting economics and finance can be observed and variably-contrasted using behavioral economics.

Behavioral economics' usefulness applies beyond environments similar to stock exchanges. Selfish-reasoning, 'adult behaviors', and similar, can be identified within criminal-concealment(s), and legal-deficiencies and neglect of different types can be observed and discovered. Awareness of indirect consequence (or lack of), at least in potential with different experimental models and methods, can be used as well—behavioral economics' potential uses are broad, but its reliability needs scrutiny. Underestimation of the role of novelty as a stressor is the primary shortcoming of current approaches for market research. It is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and in response to stressors. [108] Limitations of experimental methods (e.g. randomized control trials) and their use in economics were famously analyzed by Angus Deaton. [109]

Experimental psychological work by Kahneman and Tversky published in Armen Alchian's 1950 paper "Uncertainty, Evolution, and Economic Theory" and Gary Becker's 1962 paper "Irrational Behavior and Economic Theory," both of which were published in the Journal of Political Economy. [110] [111] provide a justification for standard neoclassical economic analysis. Alchian's 1950 paper uses the logic of natural selection, stochastic processes, probability theory, and several other lines of reasoning to justify many of the results derived from standard supply analysis assuming firms which maximizing their profits, are certain about the future, and have accurate foresight without having to assume any of those things. Becker's 1962 paper shows that downward sloping market demand curves do not actually require an assumption that the consumers in that market are rational, as is claimed by behavioral economists and they also follow from a wide variety of irrational behavior as well. The two papers laid the groundwork for Richard Thaler's work.

Critics of behavioral economics typically stress the rationality of economic agents. [112] A fundamental critique is provided by Maialeh (2019) who argues that no behavioral research can establish an economic theory. Examples provided on this account include pillars of behavioral economics such as satisficing behavior or prospect theory, which are confronted from the neoclassical perspective of utility maximization and expected utility theory respectively. The author shows that behavioral findings are hardly generalizable and that they do not disprove typical mainstream axioms related to rational behavior. [113]

Others, such as the essayist and former trader Nassim Taleb note that cognitive theories, such as prospect theory, are models of decision-making, not generalized economic behavior, and are only applicable to the sort of once-off decision problems presented to experiment participants or survey respondents. [114] Others argue that decision-making models, such as the endowment effect theory, that have been widely accepted by behavioral economists may be erroneously established as a consequence of poor experimental design practices that do not adequately control subject misconceptions. [2] [115] [116] [117]

Despite a great deal of rhetoric, no unified behavioral theory has yet been espoused: behavioral economists have proposed no alternative unified theory of their own to replace neoclassical economics with.

David Gal has argued that many of these issues stem from behavioral economics being too concerned with understanding how behavior deviates from standard economic models rather than with understanding why people behave the way they do. Understanding why behavior occurs is necessary for the creation of generalizable knowledge, the goal of science. He has referred to behavioral economics as a "triumph of marketing" and particularly cited the example of loss aversion. [118]

Traditional economists are skeptical of the experimental and survey-based techniques that behavioral economics uses extensively. Economists typically stress revealed preferences over stated preferences (from surveys) in the determination of economic value. Experiments and surveys are at risk of systemic biases, strategic behavior and lack of incentive compatibility. Some researchers point out that participants of experiments conducted by behavioral economists are not representative enough and drawing broad conclusions on the basis of such experiments is not possible. An acronym WEIRD has been coined in order to describe the studies participants - as those, who come from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic societies. [119]

Responses Edit

Matthew Rabin [120] dismisses these criticisms, countering that consistent results typically are obtained in multiple situations and geographies and can produce good theoretical insight. Behavioral economists, however, responded to these criticisms by focusing on field studies rather than lab experiments. Some economists see a fundamental schism between experimental economics and behavioral economics, but prominent behavioral and experimental economists tend to share techniques and approaches in answering common questions. For example, behavioral economists are investigating neuroeconomics, which is entirely experimental and has not been verified in the field. [ citation needed ]

The epistemological, ontological, and methodological components of behavioral economics are increasingly debated, in particular by historians of economics and economic methodologists. [121]

According to some researchers, [108] when studying the mechanisms that form the basis of decision-making, especially financial decision-making, it is necessary to recognize that most decisions are made under stress [122] because, "Stress is the nonspecific body response to any demands presented to it." [123]

Experimental economics Edit

Experimental economics is the application of experimental methods, including statistical, econometric, and computational, [124] to study economic questions. Data collected in experiments are used to estimate effect size, test the validity of economic theories, and illuminate market mechanisms. Economic experiments usually use cash to motivate subjects, in order to mimic real-world incentives. Experiments are used to help understand how and why markets and other exchange systems function as they do. Experimental economics have also expanded to understand institutions and the law (experimental law and economics). [125]

A fundamental aspect of the subject is design of experiments. Experiments may be conducted in the field or in laboratory settings, whether of individual or group behavior. [126]

Variants of the subject outside such formal confines include natural and quasi-natural experiments. [127]

Neuroeconomics Edit

Neuroeconomics is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to follow a course of action. It studies how economic behavior can shape our understanding of the brain, and how neuroscientific discoveries can constrain and guide models of economics. [128] It combines research methods from neuroscience, experimental and behavioral economics, and cognitive and social psychology. [129] As research into decision-making behavior becomes increasingly computational, it has also incorporated new approaches from theoretical biology, computer science, and mathematics.

Neuroeconomics studies decision making by using a combination of tools from these fields so as to avoid the shortcomings that arise from a single-perspective approach. In mainstream economics, expected utility (EU) and the concept of rational agents are still being used. Many economic behaviors are not fully explained by these models, such as heuristics and framing. [130] Behavioral economics emerged to account for these anomalies by integrating social, cognitive, and emotional factors in understanding economic decisions. Neuroeconomics adds another layer by using neuroscientific methods in understanding the interplay between economic behavior and neural mechanisms. By using tools from various fields, some scholars claim that neuroeconomics offers a more integrative way of understanding decision making. [128]

Evolutionary psychology Edit

An evolutionary psychology perspective states that many of the perceived limitations in rational choice can be explained as being rational in the context of maximizing biological fitness in the ancestral environment, but not necessarily in the current one. Thus, when living at subsistence level where a reduction of resources may result in death, it may have been rational to place a greater value on preventing losses than on obtaining gains. It may also explain behavioral differences between groups, such as males being less risk-averse than females since males have more variable reproductive success than females. While unsuccessful risk-seeking may limit reproductive success for both sexes, males may potentially increase their reproductive success from successful risk-seeking much more than females can. [131]


What are the minimal requirements for successful gamification? - Psychology

Before applying for licensure, please familiarize yourself with the general licensing policies.

An applicant for licensure shall meet the eligibility requirements outlined below:

Successful completion of a doctoral degree from an approved program in psychology. Programs holding full accreditation by the American Psychological Association during the applicant's attendance meet the requirements for an approved program in psychology. Programs not so accredited are subject to an individual review to ensure that the applicant's psychology program meets the requirements outlined in Section 20-188-2 of the Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies

An applicant who has received a doctoral degree in psychology that does not meet the requirements outlined in the Regulations may remediate the required course work post-doctorally in a program accredited by the APA.

An applicant who has received a doctoral degree in a non-applied or non-clinical area of psychology shall meet the educational requirements provided the applicant has completed a respecialization program in an applied psychology program accredited by the APA.

Successful completion of at least 1 year of supervised work experience at the pre or post-doctoral level. Work experience as part of an internship required to complete the doctoral degree cannot be counted toward meeting this requirement.

The work experience must be either no less than 35 hours per week for a minimum of 46 weeks within 12 consecutive months or be no less than 1,800 hours within 24 consecutive months. No more than 40 hours per week may be credited toward the required experience.

Supervision is defined as direct, face-to-face supervision provided by a doctoral-level psychologist who is licensed in the state where the experience was conducted. The experience must be appropriate to the applicant's graduate coursework and intended area of practice. For each 40 hours of work experience, the supervision shall consist of at least 3 hours of which no less than 1 hour shall be individual, direct, face-to-face supervision. The supervisor shall not concurrently supervise more than a total of 3 individuals completing the work experience.

Individuals completing the work experience in Connecticut are exempt from the licensing requirement while completing the work experience necessary to obtain licensure. Not later than two years after completion of the work experience, the exemption from the licensure requirement shall cease if the person did not successfully complete the EPPP examination.

An applicant may substitute two (2) years of licensed work experience in lieu of this requirement.

Additional requirements pertaining to work experience for individuals commencing such experience on and after April 1, 1988, are specified in Section 20-188-3 of the Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies

Successful completion of the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP) administered by the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards &ndash Prior to April 2001, the cut score for the EPPP is 70%. On or after April 2001, the passing score is 500

If taking the EPPP as a Connecticut candidate, once all application material has been submitted and reviewed by this office, the applicant will be notified in writing as to the applicant's eligibility for the EPPP examination. Once notified, the applicant will be provided with instructions as to how to register on-line for the examination. Once the applicant has registered for the examination on-line, the applicant will receive via email, instructions as to scheduling an examination within a 60-day testing window with Prometric Testing Center. Failure to take the examination in the 60-day window will result in a penalty by PES.

An official transcript verifying the award of the appropriate degree in psychology, submitted directly to this Department.

Applicants graduating from a program that was not APA accredited, must, in addition to arranging for the submission of an official transcript, arrange for the submission of a Verification of Doctoral Education Program Form directly from the source.

Verification of work experience submitted directly to this office from the supervisor. Please select this link for the required form. If substituting licensed work experience in lieu of this requirement, please arrange for a letter to be submitted directly to this office from your employer.

Applicants in private practice may arrange for a letter to be submitted by a practitioner with whom the applicant had a referral relationship. In either case, the letter must indicate that the applicant worked as a licensed psychologist and provide dates of the employment.

Official verification of the EPPP examination forwarded directly to this office from the EPPP Score Transfer Service

Verification of all licenses held, current or expired. The verification of licensure form must be forwarded to the appropriate authority in any U.S. state or territory in which the applicant is or has ever been licensed as a psychologist. Most jurisdictions charge a fee for completion of the verification form. Please contact the jurisdiction for fee information

A completed application and fee of $565.00. Applications are only accepted online. Please select the following link to apply online.

Please arrange for all supporting documentation to be sent directly from the source to:


10 Must-Know Tips for Making Better Conversations

You and your partner are having a quiet dinner at home, but perhaps you are finding it a bit too quiet. Although you don't feel that communication has ever been an issue for you, it seems that lately you’ve run out of fresh things to say. Or perhaps you’re sharing a commute with your carpool buddy, and the minutes seem to be dragging on without any new topics to cover. The ride goes much faster when you can enjoy a good chat, but now you just can’t wait to arrive at your destination. Not knowing what to talk about can also affect you in social situations, such as an office party or a neighborhood get-together. You’re in the corner with a coworker or person from down the street, and just keep coming up short when the conversation switches to you.

In a new study published by Joshy Jacob Vazhappilly and Marc Reyes (2017) of the University of Santo Tomas (Manila), the efficacy of an intervention designed to help distressed marital partners learn to communicate better was evaluated. Although applied in a treatment situation, their “Emotion-Focused Couples Communication Program (ECCP)” could have broader applicability to any situation in which you find yourself unable to communicate in ways consistent with your wishes. In couples, as they point out, “healthy communication nurtures human relationship."

ECCP trains couples over the course of a nine-module series. Some modules include training partners to listen with empathy (“with giraffe’s ears”), meaning to listen without judgment and to take criticism “jovially.” Other modules train couples to be genuine and truthful in turn, and to avoid “should-talks.” As they get further into the training, couples “use a new language of loving relationship of understanding and accepting.” Vazhappilly and Reyes evaluated the intervention’s efficacy on the marital satisfaction and communication scores of 32 Indian couples. There was no control group, but over the course of the five-week training, couples showed significant improvement on these two outcome measures.

You may not feel you need such an intervention to get along better with your carpool partner, but the basic principles of ECCP could prove translatable to a variety of situations involving communication, particularly when you feel stuck. With these findings in mind, let’s take a look at 10 ways that you can become a better communicator when your conversations hit a bump in the road.

1. Listen to what the other person is saying. If you’re too focused on what you should say next, you’ll miss opportunities to follow up on good talking points right in front of you. These could be areas of similarity between you and a person you’ve just met (such as having the same birthday), or lead-ins that your spouse provides which give you an opportunity to find out more. Either way, you’ll seem like someone who really has an interest in the other person, and you’ll also come up with further conversation topics.

2. Express yourself openly and honestly. People can sniff out insincerity pretty well, and if you’re covering up, they’ll feel less like confiding in you.

3. Avoid making judgments. No matter whether the person you’re talking to is your romantic partner or a relative stranger, if you come across as judgmental, the other person will feel less like confiding in you.

4. Look for obvious cues as conversation jumping-off points. People you don’t know that well may reveal features about their interests or background just by what they’re wearing. Someone wearing clothes with sport team logos gives you the opportunity to ask about their fan allegiance, which can make for interesting conversation if the team is from another city or country. Unusual or particularly artistic jewelry is another conversation-starter.

5. Stay on top of the news, and store some of it away so that you can chat about it later. You might not want to get into a serious political discussion with someone you hardly know, but some events from the national or local news can present interesting tidbits. There certainly is plenty going on to provide rich fodder for conversation, as long as you steer clear of particularly sensitive topics.

6. Come up with an agenda. Just as meetings run more smoothly with a predetermined set of topics, your social conversations could benefit from similar planning. If you know you’ll be in the car with your carpool partner for an hour, think of three or four things you think would be fun to kick around. Similarly, with your romantic partner, planning a list of items you can cover at dinner could also keep the conversation alive.

7. Don’t be scared by silence. A quiet interlude in an otherwise lively conversation doesn’t necessarily mean your relationship is doomed, or that you’ve become uninteresting. Sometimes a little break can give each of you a chance to refocus.

8. Note whether the other person would like to break off the conversation. To be a better conversation partner, you sometimes need to know when to close as well as to open. If people sense that you don’t know when to stop talking, whether it’s saying goodbye at the door or letting your partner get on to other tasks around the house, they’ll tend to stay away from getting entangled in what they’ll perceive as a tedious interaction.

9. Be careful about making jokes that will be perceived as insensitive. You and your partner likely have a somewhat broader range of potentially offensive topics that you can openly discuss than you would with someone you hardly know. It’s much harder to back off from an unfortunate comment with people who aren't your closest friends or family members.

10. Use conversations with new people as practice for improving your skills. The ECCP intervention was focused on married couples, but its principles can be translated to a variety of less intense situations. Let’s say you’re seated next to someone you’ve never met at a dinner for supporters of a local cause. The chances are good that you already have things in common, so make it your goal to find out what they are, and let the conversation evolve around these solid talking points. Honing your abilities in this way will give you greater confidence to help other conversations flow in the future.

Being able to keep the conversation going can certainly build the bonds between you and the people you care about the most. And if you’re trying to have an enjoyable evening with someone you’ve just met, these primers may lead to surprising outcomes that can broaden your fulfillment in unexpected ways.

Vazhappilly, J. J., & Reyes, M. S. (2017). Efficacy of emotion-focused couples communication program for enhancing couples’ communication and marital satisfaction among distressed partners. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, doi:10.1007/s10879-017-9375-6


Licensure for Clinical Psychologists

Licensing requirements vary by state, although all candidates should consider general points as they prepare for licensure. Individuals interested in starting the licensing process can begin by reviewing the requirements of their state’s specific licensing board.

State licensing boards typically require candidates to hold a minimum of a doctoral degree in psychology from a regionally accredited college or university. Some states also require the psychology program to hold accreditation from the American Psychological Association or another related programmatic accrediting agency.

Across the nation, all states require applicants to complete and pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology to demonstrate their competencies in core psychology areas, including social and biological bases of behavior, assessment, and diagnosis.

Along with the educational criteria and exam requirement, candidates for psychology licensure must complete a specific amount of supervised clinical hours, determined by their state’s licensing board.


Doctoral Degree

A doctoral degree is the highest educational level a therapist can achieve. While it is not required to practice as a therapist, you will have to get a doctorate if you want to become a licensed psychologist. A doctoral degree can also help you gain more knowledge and specialize in a particular area. For example, some therapists choose to complete doctoral degrees in child psychology so that they can learn more about treating children.

You will take classes as part of your PhD training, but you will also have to write a dissertation. This challenging paper can introduce a new theory to contribute to the field, or present a research study you conducted. You will need to get approval for your dissertation topic, and you will have to defend it in front of a committee after it is completed.

Future psychologists typically choose between obtaining a PsyD and a PhD in a doctorate program. The PsyD is a practical degree rather than a research-oriented one, it prepares future psychologists to act as counselors. A PhD can also prepare you to become a psychologist, but the focus is generally on research and theory rather than professional training.

A doctoral degree is different from a medical degree, although people with PhDs are called doctors. People with doctoral degrees cannot write prescriptions for medication. If you want to be able to prescribe psychotropic medication to people, you will have to attend medical school and train to become a physician or psychiatrist.

Whether you choose to pursue a master's degree or a doctoral degree, remember that each person completes their education at their own pace and in their own way. You may take time off from school during your academic career, work part-time while taking part-time classes, or begin your education to become a therapist after many years spent raising a family or working in a different field altogether. You also may transfer schools during your educational process or adjust your major or program focus as you go.