Information

What does this writer mean?

What does this writer mean?

I hope I am asking this question in the right place. In her reading of Duras's Hiroshima mon amour, Julia Kristeva, the analyst and philosopher, refers to Duras as a melancholic. Anne Juranville, also an analyst and a professor of literature, however, believes, in Kelly Oliver's words, that "

Duras is too depressed to be melancholic Oliver, 2001, 152

Can anyone explain what she means by this? Isn't the melancholic, in the last analysis, the same as the depressed?

What does she mean by saying that

the melancholic “subject,” and in particular the feminine one, maintains an immediate, traumatic relation to the real qua maternal Thing. Ibid

Here's part of the paragraph cited from Kelly Oliver's Psychoanalysis, Aesthetics, and Politics in the Work of Kristeva (2009):

Anne Juranville, also an analyst and professor of literature, disagrees with Kristeva's clinical diagnosis, arguing that Duras is too depressed to be melancholic, but does agree that the melancholic “subject,” and in particular the feminine one, maintains an immediate, traumatic relation to the real qua maternal Thing. This nostalgic denial of individuation, as for Kristeva, positions the melancholic beyond the pale of symbolic intervention, unable to access in any way the historical reality of the social: “Stupefied, horrified, [the melancholic] fixes himself in an inhuman zone beyond death where, lacking the least symbolic recourse, he is condemned to remain eternally and passively concentrated on this gaping wound that he himself is” (1993, 54). ibid


As Bryan indicates, this question is hardly answerable in the context of science. However, I can take a bash at it;

Can anyone explain what she means by this? Isn't the melancholic, in the last analysis, the same as the depressed?

No, melancholy is more of a 'normal' emotional state, whereas depression is a debilitating mental illness associated with morbid symptoms and higher chances of suicide.

As to that other passage, I reckon that's really a biased, opinion-fueled statement with no relation whatsoever in science. To cite a part of the wiki page on her:

Her [… ] work includes [… ] intertextuality, the semiotic, and abjection, in the fields of linguistics, literary theory and criticism, psychoanalysis, biography and autobiography, political and cultural analysis, art and art history.

These areas of expertise are quite far from science. Psychoanalysis comes closest, but even that is disputed in terms of not being embedded in evidence-based science.


Words nearby writer

A successful writer finds herself trapped as a 19th-century slave.

Andreas Weber is a Berlin-based philosopher, biologist, and writer .

Ali Faagba is a copy writer , content marketer, and a tech freelance writer .

As a freelance writer , she specializes in marketing and graphic design.

Bill Malcolm is the only nationwide syndicated LGBTQ value travel writer .

In his view, a writer has only one duty: to be present in his books.

Spencer, 27, is variously described as a writer and a stand-up comic.

Decades ago, the writer -director wrote an episode of the animated comedy that never was.

The Perfect Storm writer talks combat brotherhood and the threat posed by growing wealth inequality.

His father, a writer , and his mother, who worked in insurance, were flawless.

William Woodville died a distinguished English physician and medical writer .

With this letter is another by the same writer , dated July 30, 1622—a postscript to a duplicate of the preceding letter.

Christopher Bennet died a distinguished London physician, and writer on medical subjects.

I do not think it would have been possible to stand between the public and a writer in this way in the years before 1914.


Contents

Throughout history, writer's block has been a documented problem. [2] Professionals who have struggled with the affliction include authors such as F. Scott Fitzgerald [3] and Joseph Mitchell, [4] comic strip cartoonist Charles M. Schulz, [5] composer Sergei Rachmaninoff, [6] and songwriter Adele. [7] Early Romantic writers did not understand much about the topic they assumed writer's block was due to a power that did not want them to write anymore. It became slightly more recognised during the time of French Symbolists who had famously recognised poets that gave up writing early into their career because they couldn't find the language to convey their message. During the period of the Great American Novel it was very widely recognised as something that would block a writer and cause them emotional instability. [8] Research concerning this topic was done in the late 1970s and 1980s. During this time, researchers were influenced by the Process and Post-Process movements, and therefore focused specifically on the writer's processes. The condition was first described in 1947 by Austrian psychoanalyst Edmund Bergler, [9] who described it as being caused by oral masochism, mothers that bottle fed and an unstable private love life. [8] The growing reputation of psychiatry in the United States made the term gain more recognition. [10] However, some great writers may have already suffered from writer's block years before Bergler described it, such as Herman Melville, who quit writing novels a few years after writing Moby-Dick. [11]

Writer's block may have several causes. Some are creative problems that originate within an author's work itself. A writer may run out of inspiration, or be distracted by other events. A fictional example can be found in George Orwell's novel Keep the Aspidistra Flying, in which the protagonist Gordon Comstock struggles in vain to complete an epic poem describing a day in London: "It was too big for him, that was the truth. It had never really progressed, it had simply fallen apart into a series of fragments." [12]

Other blocks may be produced by adverse circumstances in a writer's life or career: physical illness, depression, the end of a relationship, financial pressures, or a sense of failure. [ citation needed ] The pressure to produce work may in itself contribute to writer's block, especially if they are compelled to work in ways that are against their natural inclination (e.g. with a deadline or an unsuitable style or genre). [ citation needed ] The writer Elizabeth Gilbert, reflecting on her post-bestseller prospects, proposed that such a pressure might be released by interpreting creative writers as "having" genius rather than "being" a genius. [13]

It has been suggested that writer's block is more than just a mentality. Under stress, a human brain will "shift control from the cerebral cortex to the limbic system". [14] The limbic system is associated with the instinctual processes, such as "fight or flight" response and behaviour that is based on "deeply engrained training". The limited input from the cerebral cortex hinders a person's creative processes, which is replaced by the behaviours associated with the limbic system. The person is often unaware of the change, which may lead them to believe they are creatively "blocked". [14] In her 2004 book The Midnight Disease: The Drive to Write, Writer's Block, and the Creative Brain (ISBN 9780618230655), the writer and neurologist Alice W. Flaherty has argued that literary creativity is a function of specific areas of the brain, and that block may be the result of brain activity being disrupted in those areas. [15] Dr. Flaherty suggested in her writing that there are many diseases that may impact ones ability to write. One of which she refers to is hypergraphia, or the intensive desire to write. She points out that in this condition, the patients temporal lobe is afflicted, usually by damage, and it may be the same changes in this area of the brain that can contribute to writer's blocking behaviours. [16] Not to be confused with writer's block, agraphia is a neurological disorder caused by trauma or stroke causing difficulty in communicating through writing. Agraphia cannot be treated directly, but it is possible to relearn certain writing abilities. [17]

Physical damage can produce writer's block. If a person experiences tissue damage in the brain, i.e. a stroke, it is likely to lead to other complications apart from the lesion itself. This damage causes an extreme form of writer's block known as agraphia. [10] With agraphia, the inability to write is due to issues with the cerebral cortex this disables the brain's process of translating thoughts into writing. Brain injuries are an example of a physical illness that can cause a writer to be blocked. Other brain related disorders and neurological disorders such as epilepsy have been known to cause the problem of writer's block and hypergraphia, the strong urge to write. [17] Some other causes of writer's block has been due to writer's anxiety. Writer's anxiety is defined as being worried with one's words or thought, thus experiencing writer's block. [18]

For a composition perspective, Lawrence Oliver says, in his article, "Helping Students Overcome Writer's Block", "Students receive little or no advice on how to generate ideas or explore their thoughts, and they usually must proceed through the writing process without guidance or corrective feedback from the teacher, who withholds comments and criticism until grading the final product." [19] He says, students "learn to write by writing", and often they are insecure and/or paralysed by rules. [19]

Phyllis Koestenbaum wrote in her article "The Secret Climate the Year I Stopped Writing" about her trepidation toward writing, claiming it was tied directly to her instructor's response. [20] She says, "I needed to write to feel, but without feeling I couldn't write." [20] To contrast Koestenbaum experience, Nancy Sommers expressed her belief that papers do not end when students finish writing and that neither should instructors' comments. [21] She urges a "partnership" between writers and instructors so that responses become a conversation. [21]

Mike Rose states that writer's block can be caused by a writer’s history in writing, rules and restrictions from the past. Writers can be hesitant of what they write based on how it will be perceived by the audience. [22]

James Adams notes in his book, Conceptual Blockbusting, various reasons blocks occur include fear of taking a risk, "chaos" in the pre-writing stage, judging versus generating ideas, an inability to incubate ideas, or a lack of motivation. [23]

Clark describes the following strategies for coping with writer's block: class and group discussion, journals, free writing and brainstorming, clustering, list making, and engaging with the text. [2] To overcome writing blocks, Oliver suggests asking writers questions to uncover their writing process. [19] He then recommends solutions such as systematic questioning, free-writing, and encouragement. [19] A recent study of 2,500 writers aimed to find techniques that writers themselves use to overcome writer's block. [24] The research discovered a range of solutions from altering the time of day to write and setting deadlines to lowering expectations and using mindfulness meditation. Research has also shown that it is highly effective if one breaks their work into pieces rather than doing all of their writing in one sitting, in order to produce good quality work. It's also important to evaluate the environment in which the writing is being produced to determine if it is the best condition to work in. One must look into these different factors to determine if it is a good or bad environment to work in. [25] Psychologists who have studied writer's block have concluded that it is a treatable condition once the writer finds a way to remove anxiety and build confidence in themselves. [26]

Garbriele Lusser Rico's concern with the mind links to brain lateralisation, also explored by Rose and Linda Flowers and John R. Hayes among others. Rico's book, Writing the Natural Way looks into invention strategies, such as clustering, which has been noted to be an invention strategy used to help writers overcome their blocks, [27] and further emphasises the solutions presented in works by Rose, Oliver, and Clark. Similar to Rico, James Adams discusses right brain involvement in writing. [23] While Downey purposes that he is basing his approach in practical concerns, [5] his concentration on right brain techniques speaks to cognitive theory approach similar to Rico's and a more practical advice for writers to approach their writer's block. [5]

Mind mapping is suggested as another potential solution to writer's block. The technique involves writing a stream of consciousness on a horizontal piece of paper and connecting any similar or linked thoughts. This exercise is intended to help a writer suffering from writer's block to bypass the left hemisphere of their brain and access the right hemisphere more directly. [28] By freely associating thoughts around an idea, writers receive an unfiltered map of potential ideas. [29]

Zettelkasten, a personal knowledge management system popularized by sociologist Niklas Luhmann, have been proposed as a solution. It consists of linking ideas to create associations, taking advantage of what the writer already knows. Thus facilitating the retrieval of concepts usable for a paper, so that writing does not start from scratch. [30]

Other research exemplifies neurological malfunctions as the primary cause of these factors. Similar to the aforementioned brain lateralisation, it's only different in that Malcom T. Cunningham shows how these malfunctions were even linked to trauma both mental and physical. [31] Other more modern ways to cope come from ideas such as The Brand Emotions Scale for Writers (BESW), coming from the basis of the Differential Emotions Scale, the BESW works with grouping emotions into either states or traits and then making those either Positive, Negative Passive, or Negative Active. Researchers can assess subjects with more clarity now, giving writers a better chance to get more work done if left in the right emotional state since the data openly shows the writers with Positive emotions tended to express more than writers with Negative Passive or Negative Active. [32]


UX writing and content design: What&rsquos the difference?

You might have come across the role of &lsquocontent designer&rsquo and thought that the description sounded very similar to a UX writer, or heard them referred to as disciplines that are often conflated or confused. So, what is the difference between a UX writer and a content designer?

&lsquoContent designer&rsquo is a term that vastly predates &lsquoUX writer&rsquo, which has only recently (in the last three years or so) started to enjoy widespread usage. A Google Trends comparison of the two terms will show you that &lsquoContent designer&rsquo dates back at least as far as 2004 (no Trends data exists prior to this point), while &lsquoUX writer&rsquo is just creeping up to the same level of usage and beginning to overtake it as the preferred term.

A Google Trends comparison over time of the search terms &lsquoContent designer&rsquo and &lsquoUX writer&rsquo, using US search data.

Broadly speaking, &lsquocontent designer&rsquo and &lsquoUX writer&rsquo are two different names for the same role. UX writing is sometimes thought to refer more narrowly to writing microcopy and nothing else, but as I&rsquove covered above, UX writers are frequently expected to play a role in the product design process, advocate for the user, conduct research and testing, and set down style guidelines for wider content production.

Content design is also sometimes understood to refer to the design of all types of content &ndash including things like graphics, animation, video and audio &ndash but it most frequently crops up in the context of written content.

Many die-hard advocates of content design will insist that this term is the most accurate and useful, particularly as it speaks directly to the fact that the role is a design one. However, UX writing proponents will contend that having &lsquoUX&rsquo in the title is most relevant and speaks to the role&rsquos primary goal of facilitating a smooth user experience regardless of what that involves.

Ultimately, the title used to refer to a role will always depend on the company some companies use the term &lsquocontent strategist&rsquo to mean a UX writer or content designer, while others will call the role a &lsquodigital content specialist&rsquo.

There might be an emphasis on slightly different skillsets depending on the job title, but the scope, responsibilities and expectations will always vary from organisation to organisation &ndash so if you&rsquore interested in the discipline of UX writing, make sure to read up on content design as well.

For more on UX, visit Econsultancy&rsquos user experience and usability hub or download our guide to User Experience and Interaction Design for Mobile and Web. For more on job descriptions, download our report on Modern Marketing Job Desriptions.


Words nearby writer

A successful writer finds herself trapped as a 19th-century slave.

Andreas Weber is a Berlin-based philosopher, biologist, and writer .

Ali Faagba is a copy writer , content marketer, and a tech freelance writer .

As a freelance writer , she specializes in marketing and graphic design.

Bill Malcolm is the only nationwide syndicated LGBTQ value travel writer .

In his view, a writer has only one duty: to be present in his books.

Spencer, 27, is variously described as a writer and a stand-up comic.

Decades ago, the writer -director wrote an episode of the animated comedy that never was.

The Perfect Storm writer talks combat brotherhood and the threat posed by growing wealth inequality.

His father, a writer , and his mother, who worked in insurance, were flawless.

William Woodville died a distinguished English physician and medical writer .

With this letter is another by the same writer , dated July 30, 1622—a postscript to a duplicate of the preceding letter.

Christopher Bennet died a distinguished London physician, and writer on medical subjects.

I do not think it would have been possible to stand between the public and a writer in this way in the years before 1914.


The Latin word probably derived from the Etruscan word "phersu", with the same meaning, and that from the Greek πρόσωπον (prosōpon). Its meaning in the latter Roman period changed to indicate a "character" of a theatrical performance or court of law, [ citation needed ] when it became apparent that different individuals could assume the same role and that legal attributes such as rights, powers, and duties followed the role. The same individuals as actors could play different roles, each with its own legal attributes, sometimes even in the same court appearance. According to other sources, which also admit that the origin of the term is not completely clear, persona could be related to the Latin verb per-sonare, literally: sounding through, with an obvious link to the above-mentioned theatrical mask, which often incorporated a small megaphone.

In literature the term generally refers to a character established by an author, one in whose voice all or part of a narrative takes place. Poets such as Robert Browning, Ezra Pound, and T. S. Eliot are strongly associated with such narrative voices, as is the writer Luigi Pirandello. These writers understood the term slightly differently and derived its use and meaning from different traditions. Examples of Eliot's personae were Prufrock and Sweeney. Pound developed such characters as Cino, Bertran de Born, Propertius, and Mauberley in response to figures in Browning’s dramatic monologues. Whereas Eliot used "masks" to distance himself from aspects of modern life which he found degrading and repulsive, Pound's personae were often poets and could be considered in good part alter-egos. For Pound, the personae were a way of working through a specific poetic problem. In this sense, the persona is a transparent mask, wearing the traits of two poets and responding to two situations, old and new, which are similar and overlapping.

In literary analysis, any narrative voice that speaks in the first person and appears to define a particular character is often referred to as a persona. It is contrasted with a third-person narrative voice, generally taken to be more objective and impersonal. There are borderline cases, such as the “we” that occurs late in Edwin Arlington Robinson's poem and functions something like a chorus in a Greek tragedy, but in general any identifiable narrator whose point of view or manner of speaking clearly distinguishes him or her from the author is considered a literary persona.

Usually the performers assume a role that matches the music they sing on stage, though they may also be composers. Many performers make use of a persona. Some artists create various characters, especially if their career is long and they go through many changes over time. For example, David Bowie initially adopted a role as alien messenger Ziggy Stardust, and later as The Thin White Duke. [3] More than just artistic pseudonyms, the personae are independent characters used in the artist's shows and albums (in this example, The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars and Station to Station).

However, in music, a persona does not always mean a change. Some authors have noted that Bob Dylan's charisma is due largely to his almost stereotyped image, always with a harmonica, guitar, and with his distinctive hair, nasal voice, and clothing. [4] The persona also serves to claim a right or to draw attention to a certain subject. That is the case of Marilyn Manson and his interest in death and morbidity, and Madonna and her interest in sexuality. [5]

The concept of persona in music was introduced by Edward T. Cone in his The Composer's Voice (1974), that dealt with the relation between the lyrical self of a song's lyrics and its composer. [6] The concept of persona can be used to refer also to an instrumentalist, like a pianist and his playing style, [7] although the term is more commonly used to refer to the voice and performance nuances of a vocalist in a studio album or in a live concert. Examples include Maria Bethânia, Elis Regina, Edith Piaf, Nina Simone, and also Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones, who takes the guise of Satan in the song "Sympathy for the Devil" or of a housewife in "Slave". Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band by The Beatles, presents a group persona, [8] including the character Billy Shears "played by" drummer Ringo Starr. [9]

Each member of girl group the Spice Girls adopted personas based on nicknames given to them by the British press. According to Music Week, these personas ("Ginger", "Posh", "Baby", "Sporty" and "Scary") played a key role in the group's international marketability. [10] Spice Girl Melanie C later said the personas were "like a protection mechanism because it was like putting on this armour of being this, this character, rather than it actually being you." [11]

Artists such as Lady Gaga, Nicki Minaj, and Beyoncé popularized the use of personae in the performance of pop music. [12] Jo Calderone, the persona of Lady Gaga, performed at the 2011 MTV Video Music Awards. Jo represents a drag male persona, and is often used in the performance of her song, "You and I". [13] Nicki Minaj, a bubblegum rapper, employs multiple personae, ranging from what she calls the Harajuku Barbie persona to Roman Zolanski, a Polish homosexual. The personae were heavily used in her sophomoric album, Pink Friday: Roman Reloaded. [14] [15] The persona of Beyoncé Knowles, "Sasha Fierce", appears on the album I Am. Sasha Fierce. According to Beyoncé, Sasha is her wilder side, emerging during high octane stage performances and serving as a sort of scapegoat for "unladylike" behavior. [12] [16]

According to Carl Jung and the Jungian psychology, the persona is also the mask or appearance one presents to the world. [17] It may appear in dreams under various guises. People may choose to wear a social mask or "persona" to make themselves appear more socially desirable. This is used to impress potential partners or to make new friends. [18] People can have multiple personas that they use in various situations this can include work, being with friends, at home, etc. Depending on the individual's circumstance, a persona which they consider stronger within their specific social situation can be created because they put a higher emphasis on social interactions. However Carl Jung warns about using personas too much fearing that one might lose their own individuality to their persona. A study has shown that this can be true to an extent, when taking a private self-rating test there is a high correlation between how a person rates themselves and how they present themselves in public, but it is hard to tell if people are accurately filling out the test or answering what they find desirable. [18]

In a Study written by Danielle Jackson she claims that a persons persona can range in healthiness, the more healthy a persona is the more socially acceptable and consistent that person is. However once a person starts to believe that they are their persona it can have adverse affects on their personality. [19] James Hillman believed that once a person loses their identity to a persona they become an Archetypal figure. By losing their "ego" their persona becomes their personality in an Archetypal form. However when this occurs the person becomes unstable and they are unable to act outside their formed persona. [19]

Personas are used in marketing (and advertising) by creating a marketing persona that represents a group or segment of customers [20] so that the company can focus its efforts. For example, online advertising agencies can monitor pictures, browsing history and the ads people surfing the internet generally select or choose to click, and based on that data they tailor their merchandise to a targeted audience or better describe a customer segments using a data driven approach. [21]

Personas are also used in User experience design, known as user personas. Alan Cooper introduced personas in his book, The Inmates Are Running the Asylum (1998). Cooper play-acted fictitious characters in order to help solve design questions. [22] These personas need to be based on user research and can also be described in narrative form. [23] Creating personas has become synonymous with creating a document, known as persona profile, instead of an "activity of empathetic role-play". [24]


Contents

Throughout history, writer's block has been a documented problem. [2] Professionals who have struggled with the affliction include authors such as F. Scott Fitzgerald [3] and Joseph Mitchell, [4] comic strip cartoonist Charles M. Schulz, [5] composer Sergei Rachmaninoff, [6] and songwriter Adele. [7] Early Romantic writers did not understand much about the topic they assumed writer's block was due to a power that did not want them to write anymore. It became slightly more recognised during the time of French Symbolists who had famously recognised poets that gave up writing early into their career because they couldn't find the language to convey their message. During the period of the Great American Novel it was very widely recognised as something that would block a writer and cause them emotional instability. [8] Research concerning this topic was done in the late 1970s and 1980s. During this time, researchers were influenced by the Process and Post-Process movements, and therefore focused specifically on the writer's processes. The condition was first described in 1947 by Austrian psychoanalyst Edmund Bergler, [9] who described it as being caused by oral masochism, mothers that bottle fed and an unstable private love life. [8] The growing reputation of psychiatry in the United States made the term gain more recognition. [10] However, some great writers may have already suffered from writer's block years before Bergler described it, such as Herman Melville, who quit writing novels a few years after writing Moby-Dick. [11]

Writer's block may have several causes. Some are creative problems that originate within an author's work itself. A writer may run out of inspiration, or be distracted by other events. A fictional example can be found in George Orwell's novel Keep the Aspidistra Flying, in which the protagonist Gordon Comstock struggles in vain to complete an epic poem describing a day in London: "It was too big for him, that was the truth. It had never really progressed, it had simply fallen apart into a series of fragments." [12]

Other blocks may be produced by adverse circumstances in a writer's life or career: physical illness, depression, the end of a relationship, financial pressures, or a sense of failure. [ citation needed ] The pressure to produce work may in itself contribute to writer's block, especially if they are compelled to work in ways that are against their natural inclination (e.g. with a deadline or an unsuitable style or genre). [ citation needed ] The writer Elizabeth Gilbert, reflecting on her post-bestseller prospects, proposed that such a pressure might be released by interpreting creative writers as "having" genius rather than "being" a genius. [13]

It has been suggested that writer's block is more than just a mentality. Under stress, a human brain will "shift control from the cerebral cortex to the limbic system". [14] The limbic system is associated with the instinctual processes, such as "fight or flight" response and behaviour that is based on "deeply engrained training". The limited input from the cerebral cortex hinders a person's creative processes, which is replaced by the behaviours associated with the limbic system. The person is often unaware of the change, which may lead them to believe they are creatively "blocked". [14] In her 2004 book The Midnight Disease: The Drive to Write, Writer's Block, and the Creative Brain (ISBN 9780618230655), the writer and neurologist Alice W. Flaherty has argued that literary creativity is a function of specific areas of the brain, and that block may be the result of brain activity being disrupted in those areas. [15] Dr. Flaherty suggested in her writing that there are many diseases that may impact ones ability to write. One of which she refers to is hypergraphia, or the intensive desire to write. She points out that in this condition, the patients temporal lobe is afflicted, usually by damage, and it may be the same changes in this area of the brain that can contribute to writer's blocking behaviours. [16] Not to be confused with writer's block, agraphia is a neurological disorder caused by trauma or stroke causing difficulty in communicating through writing. Agraphia cannot be treated directly, but it is possible to relearn certain writing abilities. [17]

Physical damage can produce writer's block. If a person experiences tissue damage in the brain, i.e. a stroke, it is likely to lead to other complications apart from the lesion itself. This damage causes an extreme form of writer's block known as agraphia. [10] With agraphia, the inability to write is due to issues with the cerebral cortex this disables the brain's process of translating thoughts into writing. Brain injuries are an example of a physical illness that can cause a writer to be blocked. Other brain related disorders and neurological disorders such as epilepsy have been known to cause the problem of writer's block and hypergraphia, the strong urge to write. [17] Some other causes of writer's block has been due to writer's anxiety. Writer's anxiety is defined as being worried with one's words or thought, thus experiencing writer's block. [18]

For a composition perspective, Lawrence Oliver says, in his article, "Helping Students Overcome Writer's Block", "Students receive little or no advice on how to generate ideas or explore their thoughts, and they usually must proceed through the writing process without guidance or corrective feedback from the teacher, who withholds comments and criticism until grading the final product." [19] He says, students "learn to write by writing", and often they are insecure and/or paralysed by rules. [19]

Phyllis Koestenbaum wrote in her article "The Secret Climate the Year I Stopped Writing" about her trepidation toward writing, claiming it was tied directly to her instructor's response. [20] She says, "I needed to write to feel, but without feeling I couldn't write." [20] To contrast Koestenbaum experience, Nancy Sommers expressed her belief that papers do not end when students finish writing and that neither should instructors' comments. [21] She urges a "partnership" between writers and instructors so that responses become a conversation. [21]

Mike Rose states that writer's block can be caused by a writer’s history in writing, rules and restrictions from the past. Writers can be hesitant of what they write based on how it will be perceived by the audience. [22]

James Adams notes in his book, Conceptual Blockbusting, various reasons blocks occur include fear of taking a risk, "chaos" in the pre-writing stage, judging versus generating ideas, an inability to incubate ideas, or a lack of motivation. [23]

Clark describes the following strategies for coping with writer's block: class and group discussion, journals, free writing and brainstorming, clustering, list making, and engaging with the text. [2] To overcome writing blocks, Oliver suggests asking writers questions to uncover their writing process. [19] He then recommends solutions such as systematic questioning, free-writing, and encouragement. [19] A recent study of 2,500 writers aimed to find techniques that writers themselves use to overcome writer's block. [24] The research discovered a range of solutions from altering the time of day to write and setting deadlines to lowering expectations and using mindfulness meditation. Research has also shown that it is highly effective if one breaks their work into pieces rather than doing all of their writing in one sitting, in order to produce good quality work. It's also important to evaluate the environment in which the writing is being produced to determine if it is the best condition to work in. One must look into these different factors to determine if it is a good or bad environment to work in. [25] Psychologists who have studied writer's block have concluded that it is a treatable condition once the writer finds a way to remove anxiety and build confidence in themselves. [26]

Garbriele Lusser Rico's concern with the mind links to brain lateralisation, also explored by Rose and Linda Flowers and John R. Hayes among others. Rico's book, Writing the Natural Way looks into invention strategies, such as clustering, which has been noted to be an invention strategy used to help writers overcome their blocks, [27] and further emphasises the solutions presented in works by Rose, Oliver, and Clark. Similar to Rico, James Adams discusses right brain involvement in writing. [23] While Downey purposes that he is basing his approach in practical concerns, [5] his concentration on right brain techniques speaks to cognitive theory approach similar to Rico's and a more practical advice for writers to approach their writer's block. [5]

Mind mapping is suggested as another potential solution to writer's block. The technique involves writing a stream of consciousness on a horizontal piece of paper and connecting any similar or linked thoughts. This exercise is intended to help a writer suffering from writer's block to bypass the left hemisphere of their brain and access the right hemisphere more directly. [28] By freely associating thoughts around an idea, writers receive an unfiltered map of potential ideas. [29]

Zettelkasten, a personal knowledge management system popularized by sociologist Niklas Luhmann, have been proposed as a solution. It consists of linking ideas to create associations, taking advantage of what the writer already knows. Thus facilitating the retrieval of concepts usable for a paper, so that writing does not start from scratch. [30]

Other research exemplifies neurological malfunctions as the primary cause of these factors. Similar to the aforementioned brain lateralisation, it's only different in that Malcom T. Cunningham shows how these malfunctions were even linked to trauma both mental and physical. [31] Other more modern ways to cope come from ideas such as The Brand Emotions Scale for Writers (BESW), coming from the basis of the Differential Emotions Scale, the BESW works with grouping emotions into either states or traits and then making those either Positive, Negative Passive, or Negative Active. Researchers can assess subjects with more clarity now, giving writers a better chance to get more work done if left in the right emotional state since the data openly shows the writers with Positive emotions tended to express more than writers with Negative Passive or Negative Active. [32]


Maintenance of Positive Social Identity

As a general rule, people are motivated to feel positive about themselves and maintain their self-esteem. The emotional investments people make in their group memberships results in their self-esteem being tied to the social standing of their in-groups. Consequently, a positive evaluation of one's in-group in comparison to relevant out-groups results in a positive social identity. If a positive evaluation of one's in-group isn’t possible, however, individuals will generally employ one of three strategies:

  1. Individual mobility. When an individual does not view her group favorably, she can attempt to leave the current group and join one with a higher social standing. Of course, this won’t alter the status of the group, but it can alter the status of the individual.
  2. Social creativity. In-group members can enhance the social standing of their existing group by adjusting some element of the between-group comparison. This can be accomplished by choosing a different dimension on which to compare the two groups, or by adjusting value judgments so that what was once thought to be negative is now considered positive. Another option is to compare the in-group to a different out-group—specifically, an out-group that has a lower social status.
  3. Social competition. In-group members can attempt to enhance the group's social status by collectively working to improve their situation. In this case, the in-group competes directly with an out-group with the objective of reversing the group's social positions on one or more dimensions.

What Is the Eclectic Approach in Psychology?

Eclectic psychology refers to a therapeutic approach in which a variety of methods, principles and philosophies are used to create a treatment program that caters to a patient's unique needs. Rather than adhering to a certain school of therapy, eclectic therapists use techniques from all schools to treat patients.

Eclectic therapy can be used in the treatment of substance-abuse disorders, behavior disorders, eating disorders, addictions, mood disorders and any other psychological disorder that responds to therapy. Although some eclectic therapists may draw more from a favorite school of therapy, such as psychodynamic or cognitive-behavioral, others are self-acclaimed eclectics drawing equally from each, depending on the needs of the patient.

Eclectic approaches became increasingly common in the 1970s, before which therapists generally identified with early schools, such as Freudian and Adlerian psychology. However, many therapists have been hesitant to label themselves as eclectic therapists, with only around 10 percent of therapists applying this label to themselves, according to Dr. Drewey of Psych Web. The famed therapist Arnold Lazarus clearly used an eclectic approach, but he instead opted for the term "multi-modal therapy."

One factor pushing therapists towards an eclectic approach is insurance companies' need for assurance that a particular treatment is right for the patient. Therapists may use various approaches to have a greater chance of insurance coverage for their services.


4 Main Definitions of Intimacy and What they Mean For You

An interesting way to define intimacy would be, the blending of hearts. Intimacy with our partner allows us to &ldquosee into&rdquo who our partners really are and makes our companion &ldquosee into&rdquo us as well.

The thing you need to ask yourself is this: what does intimacy mean to me? This can be a definition of intimacy in relation to marriage or any relationship . To define intimacy is really to determine how both of you relate to each other.

What is the meaning of intimacy? What is true intimacy? And is intimacy without sex even possible?

Some in psychology today see relationship intimacy as more than just being close or being sexually intimate . The true definition of intimacy is not only about two bodies merging for physical intimacy or sex, it is deeper than that.

&lsquoWhat is intimacy in a relationship&rsquo or &lsquoWhat is intimacy in marriage&rsquo could have a different meaning for different people.

The concept of intimacy involves a mutually consensual relationship where two individuals reciprocate intimate moments and feelings of trust, emotional, and physical closeness towards each other.

Here are the 4 main definitions of intimacy and what they mean for you:


UX writing and content design: What&rsquos the difference?

You might have come across the role of &lsquocontent designer&rsquo and thought that the description sounded very similar to a UX writer, or heard them referred to as disciplines that are often conflated or confused. So, what is the difference between a UX writer and a content designer?

&lsquoContent designer&rsquo is a term that vastly predates &lsquoUX writer&rsquo, which has only recently (in the last three years or so) started to enjoy widespread usage. A Google Trends comparison of the two terms will show you that &lsquoContent designer&rsquo dates back at least as far as 2004 (no Trends data exists prior to this point), while &lsquoUX writer&rsquo is just creeping up to the same level of usage and beginning to overtake it as the preferred term.

A Google Trends comparison over time of the search terms &lsquoContent designer&rsquo and &lsquoUX writer&rsquo, using US search data.

Broadly speaking, &lsquocontent designer&rsquo and &lsquoUX writer&rsquo are two different names for the same role. UX writing is sometimes thought to refer more narrowly to writing microcopy and nothing else, but as I&rsquove covered above, UX writers are frequently expected to play a role in the product design process, advocate for the user, conduct research and testing, and set down style guidelines for wider content production.

Content design is also sometimes understood to refer to the design of all types of content &ndash including things like graphics, animation, video and audio &ndash but it most frequently crops up in the context of written content.

Many die-hard advocates of content design will insist that this term is the most accurate and useful, particularly as it speaks directly to the fact that the role is a design one. However, UX writing proponents will contend that having &lsquoUX&rsquo in the title is most relevant and speaks to the role&rsquos primary goal of facilitating a smooth user experience regardless of what that involves.

Ultimately, the title used to refer to a role will always depend on the company some companies use the term &lsquocontent strategist&rsquo to mean a UX writer or content designer, while others will call the role a &lsquodigital content specialist&rsquo.

There might be an emphasis on slightly different skillsets depending on the job title, but the scope, responsibilities and expectations will always vary from organisation to organisation &ndash so if you&rsquore interested in the discipline of UX writing, make sure to read up on content design as well.

For more on UX, visit Econsultancy&rsquos user experience and usability hub or download our guide to User Experience and Interaction Design for Mobile and Web. For more on job descriptions, download our report on Modern Marketing Job Desriptions.


What does this writer mean? - Psychology

The newspaper reached out to some fellow writers for their memories and thoughts.

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British National Corpus

Rank popularity for the word 'writers' in Spoken Corpus Frequency: #2778

Anagrams for writers »

How to pronounce writers?

How to say writers in sign language?

Numerology

The numerical value of writers in Chaldean Numerology is: 5

The numerical value of writers in Pythagorean Numerology is: 4

Examples of writers in a Sentence

Comedy writers. That was the audience, luckily, a lot of other people, both kids and adults, liked the same jokes we liked.

We all assume that what we're doing on TV tends toward the fantastical, so it's been intense that it has been so [much like a] docudrama, quite frankly, it is remarkable how these writers read the tea leaves and see what's coming.

I saw most of the writers, i'm not overly worried about masculinity.

I really want to see Indian, South Asian writer, writers in the room, not in a token way but genuinely informing whatever new direction this character may take, including how it is voiced or not voiced, i'm perfectly willing and happy to step aside or help transition it into something new. I really hope that's what' The Simpsons' does and it not only makes sense, but it just feels like the right thing to do to me.

I think writers get things in their head, and if an actor doesn’t fit that they can’t handle it. Attractiveness is subjective. When it’s not romantic, sexual or violent, I try to eliminate physical description and try to get writers out of their heads.


5 Books About Codependency

For people who want to learn more about codependency, here are some great books about codependency. These books are particularly helpful for people who fear they are codependent and want to overcome their codependency.

1. Codependency For Dummies – Darlene Lancer (2015). 2nd Edition.

This book, from a licensed marriage and family therapist, can be an excellent introduction to codependency for people who do not know a single thing about codependency.

The book is aimed at people who think they might be codependent and includes a number of actionable tips one can take to break their codependence.

2. The Language of Letting Go: Daily Meditations for Codependents – Melody Beattie

This book, by codependency expert Melody Beattie, is a handbook for people who are codependent.

This book is full of daily meditations and focuses on self-esteem, acceptance, health, and recovery. This is a good option for anyone who knows they are codependent and wants to do something about it.

3. Breaking Free of the Co-Dependency Trap – Janae B. Weinhold Ph.D., Barry K. Weinhold, & John Bradshaw (2008)

This book by a married psychologist couple is all about codependency and how to break out of it.

The authors first discuss how codependency develops in people, and how one’s childhood can ultimately lead to codependency. The authors then focus on helping the reader out of codependency.

This is a good option for anyone who wants to understand their codependency, not just how to fix it.

4. The Everything Guide to Codependency: Learn to recognize and change codependent behavior – Jeniffer Sowle (2014)

This book from a clinical psychologist aims to help people who think they are codependent.

In it, the author helps the reader recognize signs of codependency in their own behavior (and the behavior of the people around them), then helps the reader work through their own codependent or enabling behaviors, as well as the codependent or enabling behaviors of their partner.

This is a good option for learning how to recognize codependency in oneself, as well as learning how to identify and avoid codependent behaviors in the future.

5. You’re Not Crazy – You’re Codependent: What Everyone Affected by Addiction, Abuse, Trauma or Toxic Shaming Must know to have peace in their lives – Jeanette Elisabeth Menter (2012)

Finally, this book is written by someone who has struggled with codependency in their own life.

It aims to help people who have had traumatic experiences in their past figure out if some of their problems stem from codependency.

Then, for people who are struggling with codependency, the book offers a variety of ways to overcome it.